Denver Journal

Denver Journal

Annotated Old Testament Bibliography - 1999

11.30.98 | Denver Journal, Old Testament, M. Daniel Carroll R. and Richard S. Hess

    An annotated bibliography of Old Testament works by the Old Testament Faculty of Denver Seminary.

    M. Daniel Carroll R. and Richard S. Hess

    For the most part, this list considers English language studies and exegetical commentaries that have appeared within the last two decades. However, there is much of value that predates this period. For one of the most useful and wide ranging bibliographies of earlier works, see:

    Childs, Brevard S. Old Testament Books for Pastors and Teachers. Westminster, 1977.

    Our hope is that the following list will continue to prove useful by regular updating. A form of this work will also appear in a printed version edited by R. S. Hess and G. Wenham, Making the Old Testament Alive. Eerdmans, forthcoming. A special note of appreciation is due to Robert Hubbard and the late Robert Alden, whose earlier bibliography formed the basis for what follows.

    The following categories are found below:

    Histories of Israel
    Translated of Collections of Ancient Near Eastern Texts
    Ancient Near Eastern Histories
    Hebrew Lexicons
    Biblical-Theological Dictionaries
    Hebrew Grammars
    Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism
    Sociological and Anthropological Studies
    Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies
    Literary Approaches
    Israelite Religion
    Commentaries by Bible book (following the order of the Protestant canon)

    AB Anchor Bible
    BST The Bible Speaks Today
    CBC Cambridge Bible Commentary
    ConC Continental Commentary
    ComC Communicator’s Commentary
    DSB Daily Study Bible
    FOTL Forms of Old Testament Literature
    HCOT Historical Critical Commentary of the Old Testament
    Herm Hermeneia
    ICC The International Critical Commentary
    Int Interpretation
    NAC New American Commentary
    NCB New Century Bible
    OBT Overtures to Biblical Theology
    JPS Jewish Publications Society Torah Commentary
    NICOT New International Commentary on the Old Testament
    OTL The Old Testament Library
    TBC Torch Bible Commentary
    TOTC Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
    WBC Word Biblical Commentary
    WEC Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary

    *Exemplary in its category


    Archer, Jr., Gleason A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised edition. Moody, 1994. A conservative, occasionally polemical, always detailed and informative introduction.

    Childs, B.S. Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Fortress, 1979. A canonical approach to the text and books.

    Dillard, Raymond and Tremper Longman III. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Zondervan, 1994. A helpful up-to-date Evangelical contribution. Longman finished the project after the death of Dillard.

    Eissfeldt, O. The Old Testament: An Introduction. trans. P.R. Ackroyd. Harper and Row, 1965. The classic liberal Protestant introduction.

    Harrison, R. K. An Old Testament Introduction. Eerdmans, 1979. Comprehensive Evangelical discussion of introductory issues for its time.

    *LaSor, W.S., D.A. Hubbard, and F.W. Bush. Old Testament Survey. Eerdmans, 1982. Second edition, 1996. A reasonably up-to-date introduction from a balanced Evangelical perspective. order this book

    Soggin, J. Alberto. Introduction to the Old Testament. OTL. Westminster, 1989. The current standard in place of Eissfeldt; weak on literary approaches.


    Forms of Old Testament Literature. Eerdmans. Analyses of books of the Old Testament in terms of their structure and the forms of literature found in them.

    Guides to Biblical Scholarship: Old Testament Series. Fortress. The best set of paperback surveys of methods of Biblical interpretation.

    Moody Press: Four volumes by H. Wolf (Pentateuch), D. Howard (Historical Books), and C. H. Bullock (Poetic Books and Prophetic Books).

    Old Testament Guides. Sheffield Academic Press. These are the most useful for current discussions of the major interpretive issues and approaches on each book of the Old Testament.

    The Oxford Bible. Oxford University. These volumes deal with collections of books (e.g., the prophets by J. F. A. Sawyer) and genres (e.g., poetry by S. E. Gillingham).

    Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns. Collections of the most important articles in the particular field, whether specific biblical texts (e.g., R. Hess and D. Tsumura on Genesis 1-11) or on methods (e.g., C. E. Carter and C. L. Meyers on social sciences approaches).


    Brueggemann, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy. Fortress, 1997. A provocative approach that structures the discussion around the metaphor and imagery of the courtroom.

    Childs, Brevard S. Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context. Fortress, 1986. Classic on canon with a sensitivity to the New Testament.

    *Eichrodt, W. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961-67. Emphasis on the covenant. order vol. 1 order vol. 2

    House, Paul R. Old Testament Theology. IVP, 1998. A work that outlines God's nature and acts.

    Hasel, Gerhard Old Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate. Eerdmans, 1995. Fourth edition. Detailed survey of authors and issues.

    *Kaiser, W.C., Jr. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Zondervan, 1978. Evangelical. Emphasis on promise themes. order this book

    Ollenburger, Ben C., Elmer A. Marten, and Gerhard F. Hasel, eds. The Flowering of Old Testament Theology. Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns, 1992. A collection of classic articles.

    Preuss, H. D. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Westminster/John Knox, 1995-6. Focus on Yahweh.

    Rad, G. von Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. Harper and Row, 1962-65. Salvation history approach.

    Sailhammer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach. Zondervan, 1995. Evangelical. Structured study on how to do Old Testament theology.

    Terrien, S. The Elusive Presence: Toward a New Biblical Theology. Harper and Row, 1978. Focus on the wisdom literature.

    Zuck, Roy B., ed. A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Moody, 1991. Evangelical. Dallas seminary faculty contribute their perspectives.

    Special Studies:

    *Satterthwaite, Philip E., Richard S. Hess, and Gordon J. Wenham, eds. The Lord's Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts. Baker and Paternoster, 1995. A current assessment of the exegesis of key Old Testament texts. order this book

    Histories of Israel

    Ahlström, Gösta W. The History of Ancient Palestine from the Palaeolithic Period to Alexander's Conquest. With a contribution by G. O. Rollefson. Edited by D. Edelman. JSOT Supplement Series 146. Sheffield Academic Press, 1993. The most up-to-date of the major histories of ancient Israel though affected by the author's unconventional opinions and perspectives.

    Bright, J. A History of Israel. 3rd ed. Westminster, 1981. Standard of the last generation, heir of the Albright school.

    Hayes, J.H. and J. Maxwell Miller. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Westminster/John Knox, 1986. The critical alternative to Albright.

    Merrill, Eugene. Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Baker, 1987. Evangelical and conservative.

    *Shanks, Hershel, ed. Ancient Israel. A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. BAR, 1988. Popular writing by leading historians. In need of updating. order this book

    Soggin, J. Alberto, A History of Ancient Israel: From Beginnings to the Bar Kochba Revolt, A.D. 135. Westminster, 1985. This is a classic liberal interpretation of Israel's history that, though now out of date, represents an important synthesis of Continental scholarship.

    Special Studies in History:

    *Long, V. Philips. The Art of Biblical History. Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation vol. 5. Zondervan, 1994. The balance of historicity, literary art, and theology in the history writing of the Old Testament.

    Millard, Alan R., James K. Hoffmeier, and David W. Baker, eds. Faith, Tradition, and History: Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context. Eisenbrauns, 1994. Important articles on the methods and interpretation of various Old Testament passages in the light of ancient Near Eastern comparisons.


    Aharoni, Y. The Archaeology of the Land of Israel. Trans. A.F. Rainey. Westminster, 1982. A classic work.

    Stern, Ephraim (ed). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Simon and Schuster, 1995. Essential reference guide for sites.

    Ben-Tor, Amnon (ed). The Archaology of Ancient Israel. trans. R. Greenberg. Yale, 1992.

    Hoerth, Alfred Archaeology and the Old Testament. Baker, 1998. An important evangelical guide to the subject.

    *Levy, Thomas E. (ed.). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Facts on File, 1995. Although it covers a larger period than that of the Biblical time, it is the first systematic presentation of social archaeology in Israel as written by leading archaeologists. order this book

    Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E. Doubleday, 1992. A more recent work by an experienced Israeli archaeologist.

    Meyers, Eric M. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Five vols. Oxford University, 1997.

    Special Studies - in a rapidly changing field the following studies and periodicals can be useful guides.

    Brooke, George J., Adrian H. W. Curtis, and John F. Healey, eds. Ugarit and the Bible. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ugarit and the Bible. Manchester, September 1992. Ugaritisch-Biblische Literatur 11. Ugarit-Verlag, 1994. Continues to be the most useful collection of essays on this key subject.

    The Ancient Near East (formerly Biblical Archaeologist)

    Biblical Archaeology Review


    *Aharoni, Yohanan, Michael Avi-Yonah, Anson F. Rainey, and Zeev Safrai, eds. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. 3rd edition. Macmillan, 1993. New edition of a standard atlas that provides individual maps for many significant Bible events. order this book

    *Beitzel, B. The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands. Moody, 1985. Evangelical with detailed geographical discussion and good integration of maps and commentary. order this book

    *Bimson, J. and J. Kane. New Bible Atlas. Tyndale, 1985. Excellent combination of price, color maps and illustrations, and archaeological commentary. Evangelical.

    Cleave, Richard. The Holy Land: A Unique Perspective. Photography and Satellite Cartography. Lion, 1993. Stunning aerial and satellite photography.

    Pritchard, J.B., ed. Harper's Atlas of the Bible. Harper and Row, 1987. Best on indices and gazetteer in relation to the maps.

    Rasmussen, C.G. Zondervan NIV Atlas of the Bible. Zondervan, 1989. Stronger on photos and maps of Israel itself than of neighboring lands.

    Rogerson, J. The Atlas of the Bible. Facts on File, 1985. Visually dazzling color photographs as well as discussion of geography and archaeology.

    Special Studies - useful teaching tools

    Abingdon Bible Map Transparencies. Abingdon. This is a wonderful set of full color maps for both Old and New Testament events and places. One of the best for overhead projection.

    Smith, George Adam. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 25th edition. Hodder & Stoughton, 1936; Harper & Row, 1966. This is an 1894 classic with vivid word pictures of the Holy Land.

    Survey of Israel Maps. Survey of Israel, continuously updated. Hebrew and English. This is a set of scale 1:100000 maps that cover the entire area occupied by modern Israel. Includes all significant political and topographic features with many sites of antiquity noted.

    Translations of Collected Ancient Near Eastern Texts

    Beyerlin, W. (ed.). Near Eastern Religious Texts Relating to the Old Testament. OTL. Westminster, 1978.

    *Hallo, William W. and K. Lawson Younger, Jr. (eds.). The Context of Scripture. Volume 1. Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Brill, 1997. The first of a projected three volume series. This is the new Ancient Near Eastern Texts. order this book

    Pritchard, J.B. (ed.). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd. ed. Princeton University Press, 1969. Two volumes of a paperback epitome of this larger volume have also appeared.

    Ancient Near Eastern Histories

    Gurney, O. R. The Hittites. Revised edition. Penguin, 1990. A classic of a culture with important relevance to the Bible.

    Hallo, W.W., and W.K. Simpson. The Ancient Near East: A History. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. One of the most widely used brief histories.

    Hoerth, Alfred, Gerald Mattingly, and Edwin Yamauchi (eds.). Peoples of the Old Testament World. Baker, 1994. Updating of Wiseman's Peoples of Old Testament Times by U.S. Evangelicals.

    *Kemp, Barry J. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. Routledge, 1991. A social study of Egyptian life and culture. order this book

    Oppenheim, A. Leon. Ancient Mesopotamia. University of Chicago, 1977.

    Von Soden, Wolfram. The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East. Translated by D.G. Schley. Eerdmans, 1993. Traditional approach to ancient Near Eastern history.

    Wiseman, D.J. (ed.). Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford, 1973. Contributions by outstanding (mostly British) scholars in their areas.

    Hebrew Lexicons

    Brown, F., S.R. Driver, and C.A. Briggs. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Hendrickson, 1979. The best of the older lexicons.

    Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 8 vols. Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-. Three volumes have appeared. Designed for a contextual and usage approach to understanding the meaning of words.

    Holladay, W.L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1971. Useful, quick reference.

    *Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner et al. (eds.). The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3rd ed. 4 vols. Brill, 1994-. Three volumes have appeared to date. A translation of the most complete Hebrew German lexicon. order vol. 1 order vol. 2 order vol. 3

    Biblical-Theological Dictionaries

    *Botterweck, G. J., H. Ringgren, H.-J. Fabry (eds.). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1977-. 8 volumes have appeared. Translation of a German work. The standard work. order this book

    Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr., and B.K. Waltke (eds.). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Moody, 1980. Brief discussions from an Evangelical perspective.

    Jenni, E. and C. Westermann (eds.). Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 vols. Hendrickson, 1997.

    VanGemeren, Willem A. (ed.). New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Zondervan, 1997. The most recent and complete Evangelical contribution.


    *AcCordance 3.5 on CD-ROM. Gramcord, 1998. The most comprehensive computer concordance for Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and English versions. Available for PC and Macintosh computers. visit the Gramcord site

    *Even-Shoshan, E. A New Concordance of the Old Testament Using the Hebrew and Aramaic Text. 2nd edition. Baker, 1989. The best concordance for the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. order this book

    Goodrick, E.W., and J.R. Kohlenberger, III. The NIV Exhaustive Concordance. Zondervan, 1990.

    Hebrew Grammars

    Cowley, A.E., and E. Kautzsch (eds.). Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. 2d Eng. edition. Oxford, 1910. Traditionally the best of the reference grammars.

    Kelley, P. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Eerdmans, 1992. Continues and updates the Weingreen approach to learning Hebrew.

    Seow, C. L. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Revised edition. Abingdon, 1995. Continues and updates the Lambdin approach to learning Hebrew.

    *Waltke, B.K., and M. O’Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Eisenbrauns, 1990. An integration of modern linguistic approaches. order this book

    Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism

    Beckwith, R., The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Eerdmans, 1985. An affirmation of the Old Testament canon.

    Brotzman, E. Old Testament Textual Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. Baker, 1994. Good Evangelical introduction. Special guides for using Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.

    Tov, Emmanuel. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research. Revised edition. Jerusalem Biblical Studies volume 8. Simor, 1997. The most important introduction to the study of the Septuagint for biblical scholars.

    *Tov, Emmanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 1992. The best introduction to the subject. order this book

    Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament. 2nd edition. Eerdmans, 1995. Classic discussion of the Hebrew texts and the versions.

    Sociological and Anthropological Studies

    Carter, Charles E. and Carol L. Meyers, eds. Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. Sources for Biblical and Theological Study vol. 6. Eisenbrauns, 1996. A collection of important essays dealing with method and case studies from ancient Israel’s society and history.

    *Clements, Ronald E. ed. The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Cambridge, 1989. A key introduction to these categories by a collection of mainly British writers. order this book

    Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin. Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Hendrickson, 1993. Application of anthropology to social roles and institutions within ancient Israel. Can be a bit fanciful at times.

    *Overholt, Thomas W. Cultural Anthropology and the Old Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Fortress, 1996. An excellent introduction to the use of anthropology in the study of the prophets. Good bibliography. order this book

    Rogerson, John W. Anthropolgy and the Old Testament. The Biblical Seminar. JSOT Press, 1984. Documents the misapplication of anthropology in Old Testament studies.

    Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies

    *Bird, Phyllis A. Missing Persons and Mistaken Identities: Women and Gender in Ancient Israel. OBT. Fortress, 1997. A collection of significant essays written over the last twenty years by an important Old Testament feminist scholar. order this book

    Boff, Clodovis and George V. Pixley. The Bible, the Church, and the Poor. Orbis, 1989. Presents a biblical basis from a liberationist commitment for a theology of the poor and pastoral work among the disdvantaged.

    Croatto, J. Severino. Exodus: A Hermeneutics of Freedom. Orbis, 1981. Utilizes modern philosophical hermeneutical theory for contextualizing the Exodus and the prophets to modern Latin America.

    Felder, Cain Hope. Troubling Biblical Waters: Race, Class, and Family. Orbis, 1989. Designed to surface the existence of Blacks in the Bible and to explore how to find the significance of the Bible for contemporary social issues.

    Felder, Cain Hope (ed). Stony the Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation. Fortress, 1991. Essays that try to bring an African American perspective to the analysis and application of the Bible.

    Newsom, Carol A. and Sharon H. Ringe (eds). The Women’s Bible Commentary. SPCK; Westminster/John Knox, 1992. A one volume feminist commentary on the entire Bible. Each entry has a bibliography for further reading.

    Pixley, Jorge. Biblical Israel: A People’s History. Fortress, 1992. The application of a sociological approach in order to present the history of Israel as one of peasants’ struggles against oppressors.

    *Sugirtharajah, R. S. (ed). Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. Second edition. Orbis/SPCK, 1995. A collection of essays from around the world that interpret particular biblical texts from a liberationist and pluralist perspective. order this book

    Trible, Phyllis. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. OBT. Fortress, 1984. A classical work, which combines literary and feminist criticism, to highlight the tragedy and violence in the stories of four women in the Old Testament.

    Literary Approaches

    *Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981. Still one of the best introductory guides for the beginner in interpreting narrative. order this book

    The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985. An excellent introduction to biblical poetry, especially the dynamics of parallelism.

    The World of Biblical Literature. Basic Books, 1992. A useful supplement to Alter's earlier work.

    Alter, Robert and Frank Kermode (eds.) The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press, 1987. An application of the literary method to each book of the Bible.

    Bar-Efrat, Shimon. Narrative Art in the Bible. Bible and Literature Series 17. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. An important contribution to techniques of literary interpretation.

    Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Almond, 1983. A very helpful introduction to the various elements of a literary approach.

    Gunn, David M. and Danna Nolan Fewell. Narrative in the Hebrew Bible. The Oxford Bible Series. Oxford University Press, 1993. A counterpoint to Sternberg.

    Polzin, Robert. Moses and the Deuteronomist: A Literary Study of the Deuteronomic History. Seabury, 1980. One of the earliest and best discussions of narrative analysis in the historical books.

    Ryken, Leland and Tremper Longman III (eds.). A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Zondervan, 1993. An Evangelical counterpart to Alter and Kermode.

    *Sternberg, Moshe. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Indiana Unviersity Press, 1985. Probably the most important and thorough guide to philosophy and technique of narrative writing in the Old Testament. order this book

    Israelite Religion

    Albertz, Rainer. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. 2 vols. Old Testament Library. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This detailed study uses a classic liberal reconstruction of the history of Old Testament literature with interaction with recent discussions and discoveries.

    De Moor, Johannes C. The Rise of Yahwism. The Roots of Israelite Monotheism. BETL 91. Peeters, 1990. Important evidence and arguments for Israel's worship of one God in Mosaic and later times.

    Grabbe, Lester L. Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel. Trinity Press International, 1995. Sometimes assumes too much, but overall a useful study of these professional groups and their activities in Israel and surrounding cultures.

    *Keel, Othmar and Christoph Uelinger. Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Translated by Allan W. Mahnke. Fortress, 1998. The most important survey of the archaeological data, and especially the iconography, related to Israelite religion.

    Mettinger, Tryggve N. D. No Graven Image? Israelite Aniconism in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context. Coniectanea Biblica Old Testament Series 42. Almqvist & Wiksell, 1995. A combination of archaeological, textual, and biblical evidence to consider the practice of Israel's worship of God without images.

    Smith, Mark S. The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel. Harper & Row, 1990. A detailed synthesis of archaeological, textual, and biblical evidence for the worship of Yahweh and other deities in Old Testament times. This approach argues for a convergence of various deities to “create” Israel's God as he is known in the Bible.

    *Tigay, Jeffrey H. You Shall Have No Other Gods: Israelite Religion in the Light of Hebrew Inscriptions. Harvard Semitic Studies 31. Scholars Press, 1987. A brief but thorough survey of written evidence, especially personal names, this study argues that monotheism was present during the Israelite monarchy as the official religion of the southern and perhaps northern kingdoms. order this book

    van der Toorn, Karel. Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria and Israel: Continuity and Change in the Forms of Religious Life. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East volume 7. Brill, 1996. Studies ancestor worship and Israelite monotheism from the beginnings and through the Monarchy.

    *van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Brill, 1995. Second edition, 1998. This is an essential reference work on the subject.


    Blenkinsopp, Joseph. The Pentateuch. An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible. AB. Doubleday, 1992.


    Atkinson, D. The Message of Genesis 1-11. BST. IVP, 1990. Helpful exposition for laypeople and pastors. Evangelical.

    Brueggemann, W. Genesis. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1982. Theological reading with application.

    Cassuto, U. Commentary on Genesis. Trans. I. Abrahams. 2 vols. Magnes, 1964. Jewish scholar situates Genesis in Rabbinic and Hebrew interpretative traditions. A classic alternative to the Documentary approach. Only includes chapters 1-11.

    Hamilton, Victor. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1990. The Book of Genesis 18-50. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1995. Emphasis on comparative Semitics. Evangelical.

    Kidner, D. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1967. An elegant interpretation of the book. Evangelical.

    Mathews, Kenneth A. Genesis 1-11:26. NAC. Broadman, 1996. Most up to date.

    Rad, G. von. Genesis. OTL. Westminster, 1972. A classic theological interpretation from a higher critical perspective.

    Ross, Allen P. Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of Genesis. Baker, 1988. An Evangelical theological exposition with emphasis on preaching the text.

    Sarna, N.M. Genesis. The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989. A recent Jewish exegesis of the Hebrew text with appreciation for traditional Rabbinic exegesis.

    *Wenham, G.J. Genesis 1-15. WBC 1. Word, 1987. Genesis 16-50. WBC 2. Word, 1994. The best all-around Evangelical commentary that introduces the reader to the major interpretative issues and provides clearly writing on the exegesis and theological significance. order vol 1 order vol 2

    Westermann, C. Genesis. 3 vols. Augsburg, 1984-86. The largest of the resources; with an emphasis on collecting exegetical data.


    Cassuto, U. Commentary on Exodus. Trans. I. Abrahams. Magnes, 1967. Important for study of the Hebrew text.

    *Childs, B.S. The Book of Exodus. OTL. Westminster, 1974. The application of the canonical approach to a higher critical commentary. Includes a history of interpretation for each passage. order this book

    Durham, J.I. Exodus. WBC. Word, 1987. Follows the method of Childs.

    Houtman, Cornelis. Exodus. Vol. 1 (1:1-7:13). and Exodus. Vol. 2 (7:14-19:25). HCOT. Kok Pharos, 1993 and 1996. Updating of classic historical critical approach to the book.

    Sarna, Nahum. Exodus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1991. See above for Genesis.


    Harrrison, R.K. Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1980. Evangelical.

    Hartley, J. Leviticus. WBC. Word, 1992.

    Levine, B.A. Leviticus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989. A specialist in Ugaritic studies looks at Leviticus.

    Milgrom, J. Leviticus 1-16. AB. Doubleday, 1992. Major Jewish scholarly commentary on the book.

    *Wenham, G.J. The Book of Leviticus. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1979. Evangelical application of anthropology to categories of holiness. Oriented toward New Testament applications. order this book


    Ashley, T. R. The Book of Numbers. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1993. Evangelical focus on the text's final form with attentional to translational issues.

    Davies, Eryl W. Numbers. NCB. Eerdmans, 1995. Focus on sources and their development to form the book.

    Levine, Baruch A. Numbers 1-20. AB. Doubleday, 1993. Large commentary with ancient Near Eastern detail and philological discussion.

    Milgrom, J. Numbers. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1990. Commentary on the Hebrew text which accepts a substantial historicity to the accounts.

    *Wenham, G. Numbers: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1981. Evangelical perspectives on the literary structure of the book. order this book

    Wenham, Gordon J. Numbers. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: JSOT, 1997. This is the best available introduction to the book of Numbers.


    Christensen, Duane L. Deuteronomy 1-11. WBC. Word, 1991. Evangelical who studies the structure of the book as a poem with five concentric units.

    *Craigie, P.C. The Book of Deuteronomy. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1976. Evangelical, clearly written study using Ugaritic and other ancient Near Eastern evidence. order this book

    Miller, P.D., Jr. Deuteronomy. Inter. John Knox, 1990. Important theological application of the book.

    Rad, J. von. Deuteronomy. OTL. Westminster, 1966. Theological.

    Thompson, J.A. Deuteronomy: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1974. Helpful on Ancient Near Eastern backgrounds. Evangelical.

    Tigay, J. H. Deuteronomy. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1996. A committed source critic studies the book within a Jewish context.

    Weinfeld, M. Deuteronomy 1-11. Doubleday, 1991. An authority on Deuteronomic studies comments on the text.

    *Wright, Christopher J. H. Deuteronomy. New International Biblical Commentary. Hendrickson, 1996. A leading Old Testament ethicist presents an Evangelical interpretation of the text. order this book


    Boling, R. and G. E. Wright Joshua. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB. Doubleday, 1982. Aware of the archaeology, although dated.

    Butler, T. Joshua. WBC. Word, 1983. Emphasis on literary critical aspects of the text as a Deuteronomistic work.

    *Hess, R. S. Joshua: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1996. Integrates recent archaeological discoveries and literary analysis. Evangelical. order this book

    Nelson, Richard D. Joshua. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. Joshua as the product of Deuteronomistic redaction.

    Woudstra, M. The Book of Joshua. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1981. Evangelical, regards the narrative as historical.


    Auld, A.G. Joshua, Judges, and Ruth. DSB Westminster, 1984. A useful brief commentary.

    Boling, R. Judges. AB. Doubleday, 1975. Emphasizes the traditions behind the text and places many of them in the pre-Monarchy period.

    *Lindars, Barnabas. Judges 1-5. T & T Clark, 1995. The beginnings of a new ICC stopped by the author's untimely death, this work surveys a breadth of modern scholarship and closely studies the text criticism of the book. order this book

    Soggin, J.A. Judges. OTL. Westminster, 1981. A classic liberal exegesis by someone who controls much of European scholarship.


    Bush, Frederic. Ruth, Esther. WBC. Word, 1996. An Evangelical scholar of the Bible and Ancient Near East brings his knowledge to these two books.

    Campbell, E.F., Jr. Ruth. AB. Doubleday, 1985. An important theological and archaeological discussion of the book.

    Gow, Murray D. The Book of Ruth: Its Structure, Theme, and Purpose. Apollos, 1992. Evangelical application of rhetorical and literary techniques to argue for a coherent structure to Ruth.

    *Hubbard, Robert L., Jr. The Book of Ruth. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1988. A balanced and thorough study with an appreciation of literary criticism from an Evangelical perspective. order this book

    Nielsen, Kirsten. Ruth. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. The only major English language commentary on Ruth written by a woman with a special interest in intertextuality.

    Sasson, Jack M. Ruth: A New Translation with a Philological Commentary and a Formalist-Folklorist Interpretation. 2d ed. Sheffield, 1989. An ancient Near Eastern specialist examines this book.

    1 & 2 Samuel

    Anderson, A.A. 2 Samuel. WBC. Word, 1989. Considers the historical context as one in which David and Solomon are presented as rightful occupants of the throne in Jerusalem.

    *Bergen, R. D. 1 and 2 Samuel. NAC. Broadman, 1996. Evangelical reflecting a knowledge of the Hebrew and modern linguistics. order this book

    Fokkelman, J. P. Narrative Art and Poetry in the Books of Samuel: A Full Interpretation Based on Stylistic and Structural Analyses. 4 vols. Van Gorcum, 1981-1993. More than two thousand pages of careful literary analysis of the books of Samuel.

    Gordon, R.P. 1 and 2 Samuel. Zondervan, 1986. Evangelical historical and grammatical study of the book.

    Klein, R.W. 1 Samuel. WBC. Word, 1983. A commentary concerned with the final form of the text.

    *McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr., I Samuel and II Samuel. AB. Doubleday, 1980, 1984. The most important study of the Hebrew text in relation to Greek and Dead Sea Scroll witnesses. order this book

    1 & 2 Kings

    *Cogan, M., and H. Tadmor. II Kings. AB. Doubleday, 1988. Essential discussion of the Assyrian context of Judah during the latter period of the Monarchy and especially the time of Hezekiah. order this book

    DeVries, Simon J. 1 Kings. WBC. Word, 1985. Useful Evangelical commentary written without apology for the difficulties in the book.

    Hobbs, T.R. 2 Kings. WBC. Word, 1985. Evangelical literary and theological interepretation of 2 Kings.

    *House, P. R. 1 and 2 Kings. NAC. Broadman, 1995. Evangelical theological and literary synthesis of recent approaches. order this book

    Jones, G. H. 1 and 2 Kings. Volumes I and II. NCB. Eerdmans, 1984. Historical and textual criticism dominate the concerns of these volumes.

    Knoppers, Gary N. Two Nations under God: The Deuteronomistic History of Solomon and the Dual Monarchies. 2 vols. Scholars, 1993, 1994. A doctoral dissertation that provides a historical and critical commentary on Kings.

    Long, Burke O. 1 Kings. FOTL. Eerdmans, 1984. A study of the genres and literary forms used in the book.

    Long, Burke O. 2 Kings. FOTL. Eerdmans, 1991. Same as 1 Kings above.

    Nelson, R. First and Second Kings. Int. John Knox, 1987.

    *Provan, Iain W. 1 and 2 Kings. New International Biblical Commentary. Hendrickson, 1995. Evangelical literary reading of the text. order this book

    Walsh, Jerome T. 1 Kings. Berit Olam. Liturgical, 1996. Commentary in the context of a study of literary and narrative forms of 1 Kings.

    Wiseman, Donald J. 1 and 2 Kings. IVP, 1993. Evangelical application of archaeological and historical studies to the interpretation and application of the message of Kings.

    1 & 2 Chronicles

    Braun, R. 1 Chronicles. WBC. Word, 1986. An Evangelical contribution with appreciation of the historical worth of the text.

    Dillard, R.B. II Chronicles. WBC. Word, 1987. Similar to Braun for 1 Chronicles, with appreciation of Williamson's work in several cases.

    *Japhet, Sara. I & II Chronicles. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1993. A detailed theological commentary that is sensitive to Chronicles as history. order this book

    Selman, Martin J. 1 Chronicles. 2 Chronicles. 2 vols. TOTC. IVP, 1994. Evangelical study with special emphasis upon the theological significance and application.

    Thompson, John A. 1 and 2 Chronicles. NAC. Broadman, 1995. Evangelical aprreciation of the books as historically reliable.

    Williamson, H.G.M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. NCB. Eerdmans, 1982. Presents the books as basically historical with creative development for theological purposes.

    Ezra & Nehemiah

    Blenkinsopp, J. Ezra-Nehemiah. OTL. Westminster, 1988. An important discussion reflecting opinions held by many scholars and stressing the importance of the period for Judaism.

    Breneman, Mervin. Ezra Nehemiah Esther. NAC. Broadman, 1993. An Evangelical conservative review of the recent discussions and applications regarding these books.

    Clines, D.J.A. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NCB. Eerdmans, 1984. Strong bibliographies and introductions. In Esther God's existence is a premise not requiring mention.

    Fensham, F.C. The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1982. Evangelical focus on the historical and archaeological background.

    Kidner, D. Ezra and Nehemiah. TOTC. IVP, 1979. Evangelical discussion of the theological message of the book.

    Throntveit, Mark A. Ezra-Nehemiah. Int. John Knox, 1992. A more up-to-date discussion of theological and interpretative issues.

    *Williamson, H.G.M. Ezra-Nehemiah. WBC. Word, 1985. A judicious survey of the historical and major exegetical issues with an awareness of the archaeological component. order this book


    (See also commentaries listed above for Ruth and for Ezra & Nehemiah.)

    Baldwin, J.G. Esther. TOTC. IVP, 1984. Evangelical with a strong introduction and discussion of the book's contemporary theological relevance.

    Fox, Michael V. Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther. University of South Carolina Press, 1991. A text critical and literary study that stresses how open ended the book is with uncertainty about many aspects including the role of God.

    Levenson, Jon D. Esther. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. A master of biblical theology from a Jewish perspective examines the book of Esther.


    *Alden, Robert A. Job. NAC. Broadman, 1994. A balanced and Evangelical discussion of the Biblical text. order this book

    Anderson, F.I. Job. TOTC. IVP, 1976. Evangelical and linguistic study of the text.

    Clines, D.J.A. Job 1-20. WBC. Word, 1989. Important literary study with a vast bibliography.

    Gordis, R. The Book of Job: Commentary, New Translation and Special Studies. Ktav, 1978. A Jewish perspective with attention to the interpretation of difficult words and phrases.

    Hartley, J. Job. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1988. Good Evangelical survey and interaction with relevant secondary literature.

    Janzen, J.G. Job. Interp. John Knox, 1985. Existentialist approach stressing the element of free will in creation; at times more technical in its discussion.


    Allen L.C. Psalms 101-150. WBC. Word, 1983. A balanced and comprehensive Evangelical survey of exegesis in these psalms.

    Cohen, A. Psalms. Hebrew Text, English Translation and Commentary. Revised by E. Oratz. Soncino, 1992. A Jewish perspective on the interpretation of the Psalms.

    *Craigie, P. Psalms 1-50. WBC. Word, 1983. A clearly written Evangelical combination of comparative Ugaritic studies and theological insights with practical application. order this book

    Kidner, D. Psalms 1-72 and Psalms 73-150. TOTC. IVP, 1973, 1975. An Evangelical musical artist and theological exegete brings the psalms to life.

    Kraus, H.-J. Psalms 1-59. Translated by H. C. Oswald. Continental. Fortress, 1988. A comprehensive review of scholarship and detailed commentary on the Psalms.

    Kraus, H.-J. Psalms 60-150. Translated by H. C. Oswald. Continental. Fortress, 1989.

    *Mays, J. L. Psalms. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This is a theological and practical commentary set within the contexts of the canon of Scripture and the history of interpretation. order this book

    Tate, M. E. Psalms 51-100. WBC. Word, 1990. An Evangelical focus on review of scholarship, exegesis and word studies, and the relation of psalms to one another.

    Weiser, A. Psalms. OTL. Westminster, 1962. Focus on annual festivals and the psalms' role in them.

    Williams, D. M. Psalms. CC. 2 vols. Word, 1986. Evangelical.


    Alden, Robert L. Proverbs: A Commentary on an Ancient Book of Timeless Advice. Baker, 1983. Evangelical exegesis.

    *Garrett, Duane A. Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs. NAC. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. Evangelical discussion of these three Solomonic books with useful exegesis and theological application. order this book

    Hubbard, D.A. Proverbs. Mastering the Old Testament. CC. Word, 1989. Evangelical exposition and application.

    *Kidner, D. Proverbs. TOTC. IVP, 1964. Evangelical balanced reflections on the meaning of each of the proverbs. order this book

    McKane, W. Proverbs: A New Approach. OTL. Westminster, 1970. Learned discussion based on original secular wisdom that evolved to theologically oriented wisdom literature.


    Crenshaw, J.L. Ecclesiastes. OTL. Westminster, 1987. A master of biblical wisdom literature considers this book.

    *Eaton, Michael A. Ecclesiastes. An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1983. Evangelical appreciation of a positive interpretation to the book as an apologetic in a world of faithlessness.

    Gordis, R. Koholeth: The Man and His World. Schocken, 1951. A philological commentary on the Hebrew text that remains useful.

    Longman, Tremper, III Ecclesiastes. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1997.

    Murphy, Roland E. Ecclesiastes. WBC. Dallas, 1992. Lengthy introduction with standard exegesis, the author adds a monologue on the traditional wisdom that the book challenged.

    *Seow, C.-L. Ecclesiastes. AB. Doubleday, 1997. Important summary of recent research with a careful exegesis of what is regarded as a Persian period book.

    Whybray, R.N. Ecclesiastes. NCB. Eerdmans, 1989. Good survey of secondary literature with exegesis that argues a middle of the road position for the Hellenistic author.

    Song of Songs

    Carr, G. Lloyd. The Song of Solomon. An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1984. Evangelical discussion of this book as love poetry.

    Keel, Othmar. Song of Songs. Translated by F. J. Geiser. ConC. Fortress, 1994. An authority on Israelite iconography interprets the images of the book.

    *Murphy, R.E. The Song of Songs. Hermeneia. Fortress, 1990. A thorough commentary with theological as well as exegetical insight.

    Pope, M.H. Song of Songs. AB. Doubleday, 1977. A large commentary with frequent digressions into comparative customs.


    Brueggemann, Walter. Isaiah 1-39 and Isaiah 40-66. Westminster John Knox, 1998. Canonical approach focused on ascertaining how the text speaks with power to modern realities.

    Kaiser, Otto. Isaiah 1-39. 2 vols. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983, 1974. Emphasis of discussion often on authenticity and historical reconstruction instead of theology from a critical perspective.

    Motyer, J. Alec. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction & Commentary. InterVarsity, 1993. Attention to textual details within the literary structure of the book. Evangelical.

    *Oswalt, John. Isaiah 1-39. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. Solid expostion of biblical text. Introduction could be stronger. Evangelical.

    Watts, John D.W. Isaiah. 2 vols. WBC. Waco: Word Books, 1985, 1987. His unique approach to Isaiah as drama has not won much support. Evangelical.

    *Westermann, Claus. Isaiah 40-66. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. A standard critical commentary.

    Wildberger, Hans. Isaiah 1-12. ConC. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1991. Part of same German series as some of the Hermeneia volumes. Very detailed form-critical approach.

    Young, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah. 3 vols. (reprint of 1965-1972 eds.). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. A standard of an earlier generation. Amillennial. Evangelical.


    Carroll, Robert P. Jeremiah. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986. Argues that the text is an ideological creation.

    Clements, Ronald E. Jeremiah. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1988. An effort by a critical scholar to deal with the final form of the text.

    Craigie, Peter C., Page H. Kelley, and Joel F. Drinkard, Jr. Jeremiah 1-25. WBC. Dallas: Word, 1991. Completed by the other authors after the death of Craigie. Accordingly, it is uneven in amount and quality of detail. Evangelical.

    *Holladay, William L. Jeremiah 1-25; Jeremiah 26-52. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986, 1989. A massive technical commentary with a wealth of textual and exegetical notes.

    Keown, Gerald L., Pamela J. Scalise, and Thomas G. Smothers. Jeremiah 26-52. WBC. Dallas: Word, 1995. See above under Craigie. Evangelical.

    McKane, William. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Jeremiah 1-25; Jeremiah 26-52. ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1986, 1989. Focus on textual and philology issues.

    Thompson, John A. The Book of Jeremiah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980. The standard Evangelical commentary for the last two decades.


    *Hillers, Delbert R. Lamentations: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Second edition. Doubleday, 1992. Update of 1972 commentary. Attentive to poetry and structure.

    Provan, Iain. Lamentations. New Century Bible Commentary. Eerdmans, 1991. A timely commentary by an author known for literary sensitivity. Evangelical.


    Allen, Leslie C. Ezekiel 1-19, 20-48. WBC, 2 vols. Waco: Word Books, 1990. The first volume replaces the earlier initial volume by Brownlee. Helpful commentary with concern for Ancient Near Eastern background. Evangelical.

    Blenkinsopp, J. Ezekiel. Interpretation. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1990. An effort by a critical scholar to judiciously utilize scholarship for preaching concerns.

    Block, Daniel I. The Book of Ezekiel, Chapters 1-24. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997. Solid evangelical commentary with particular attention to theological issues.

    Craigie, P.C. Ezekiel. DSB. Philadelpha: Westminster, 1983. Good example of a devotional commentary that incorporates serious exegesis. Evangelical.

    Eichrodt, Walter. Ezekiel. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1970. The classical critical commentary of a generation ago.

    Greenberg, M. Ezekiel 1-20 ; Ezekiel 21-37 . AB. New York: Doubleday, 1983, 1997. Sees work as substantially from hand of the prophet and focuses on final form of the prophetic text. Jewish.

    *Zimmerli, Walther. Ezekiel 1-24 and Ezekiel 25-48. 2 vols. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979, 1983. Massive commentary within the form critical and tradition history traditions.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Daniel. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1978. Helpful with attention to background, textual, and theological issues. Evangelical.

    *Goldingay, John. Daniel. WBC. Waco: Word Books, 1989. Detailed comments with comparisons with biblical and non-biblical parallels. Defends a late date. Evangelical.

    Hartman, Louis F. and Alexander A. DiLella. Daniel. AB. Garden City: Doubleday, 1978. Places comments against a late reconstruction of background. Roman Catholic.

    Montgomery, J.A. Daniel. ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1927. Though now dated in many ways, this critical commentary is still a benchmark in terms of textual data and philology.

    Porteous, N. Daniel. OTL. Second edition. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1979. An important critical commentary of a generation ago. The second edition has a Supplement to update original 1962 commentary.

    Young, Edward J. The Prophecy of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949. A classical commentary of earlier decades. Much attention given to millennial debates. Evangelical.


    Andersen, Francis I. and David N. Freedman. Hosea. AB. New York: Doubleday, 1980. Detailed commentary with attention to literary unity and style.

    Davies, G.I. Hosea. NCB. Eerdmans, 1992. Brief comments coupled with a unique understanding of the relationship between the prophet and Gomer.

    Harper, William Rainey. Hosea and Amos. ICC. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1905. The classic commentary of early critical scholarship. Much attention to textual and philological matters.

    Hubbard, David A. Hosea. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989. Helpful commentary with some concern for literary features. Evangelical.

    MacIntosh, A.A. Hosea. ICC. A technical commentary concerned primarily with linguistic details and interested in contributions from rabbinic sources.

    Mays, James L. Hosea. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. A concise and well-written commentary from the form critical perspective.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 1: Hosea-Amos. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992. Separate, but parallel, textual and expositional comments. Quality of commentary on each book will vary according to the contributor. Evangelical.

    *Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. WBC. Waco: Word Books, 1987. Solid textual and expositional commentary. Stresses covenantal background. Evangelical.

    Wolff, Hans W. Hosea. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974. A detailed form critical commentary.


    *Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976. Careful and informed exegesis with an attempt to locate texts against possible historical background. Evangelical.

    Crenshaw, James L. Joel. AB. Garden City: Doubleday, 1995. Interest in literary structure and features.

    Finley, T.J. Joel, Amos, Obadiah. WEC. Chicago: Moody Press, 1990. Exegesis from a conservative Evangelical point of view.

    Hubbard, David A. Joel and Amos. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1989. Helpful commentary with concern for literary features. Evangelical.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 1: Hosea-Amos. See under Hosea.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See under Hosea.

    *Wolff, Hans W. Joel and Amos. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977. The classic form critical study to these two prophetic books.


    Andersen, Francis I. and David N. Freedman. Amos. AB. New York: Doubleday, 1989. A massive commentary that takes the book as substantially from the hand of the prophet.

    Finley, T.J. See above under Joel.

    Hubbard, David A. See above under Joel.

    Jeremias, Jörg. The Book of Amos. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1998. Creative critical reconstruction of text that tries to reflect literary sensibilities.

    Mays, James L. Amos. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. A concise well-written commentary from the form critical perspective.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 1: Hosea-Amos. See under Hosea.

    *Paul, Shalom. Amos. Hermeneia. Fortress, 1991. Excellent analysis of text with an emphasis on Ancient Near Eastern parallels and backgrounds.

    *Smith, G.V. Amos. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988. Solid exegesis with attention to theological concerns. Evangelical.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See under Hosea.

    Wolff, Hans W. See under Joel.


    *Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. See above under Joel.

    Baker, D.W., T.D. Alexander, and B.K. Waltke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988. Helpful, but sometimes brief. Evangelical.

    Finley, T.J. See above under Joel.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 2: Obadiah-Habakkuk. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993. Separate, but parallel, textual and expositional comments. Quality of commentary on each book will vary according to the contributor. Evangelical.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See under Hosea.

    Wolff, H.W. Obadiah and Jonah. Augsburg, 1985. Form critical perspective. Not as detailed as some of Wolff’s other commentaries.


    Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. See above under Joel.

    Alexander, T.D., D.W. Baker, and B.K. Waltke. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. See above under Obadiah.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 2: Obadiah-Habakkuk. See under Obadiah.

    *Sasson, Jack M. Jonah. AB. Garden City: Doubleday, 1990. Detailed commentary with attention to literary nuances.

    Stuart, Douglas. Hosea - Jonah. See under Hosea.

    Wolff, H.W. Obadiah and Jonah. See above under Obadiah.


    *Allen, Leslie C. The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah. See above under Joel.

    Hillers, Delbert R. Micah. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984. A bit brief with emphasis on textual issues.

    Mays, James L. Micah. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976. A well-written commentary from the form critical perspective, although has not been as well received as his works on Amos and Hosea.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 2: Obadiah-Habakkuk. See under Obadiah.

    Waltke, B.K., D.W. Baker, and T.D. Alexander. Obadiah, Jonah, Micah. See above under Obadiah.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. WBC. Dallas: Word, 1984. Not as detailed as Stuart’s commentary on Hosea-Jonah in the same series (above).

    Wolff, Hans Walter. Micah. A Commentary. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1990. A detailed form critical approach.


    Baker, David W. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988. Helpful but sometimes overly concise. Evangelical.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 2: Obadiah-Habakkuk. See under Obadiah.

    *Roberts, J. J. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. OTL. Louisville: Westminster/ John Knox, 1991. Focuses on textual and grammatical issues.

    *Robertson, O. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. Clear exposition with theological concerns. Evangelical.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.


    Baker, David W. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    McComiskey, Thomas Edward (ed.). The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical & Expository Commentary. Vol. 2: Obadiah-Habakkuk. See under Obadiah.

    *Roberts, J. J. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    *Robertson, O. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.


    Baker, David W. Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Berlin, Adele. Zephaniah. AB. Doubleday, 1994. A literary approach to the book.

    *Roberts, J. J. Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    *Robertson, O. Palmer. The Books of Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah. See above under Nahum.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. TOTC. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1972. Clear exposition with theological sensitivity defending integrity of text. Evangelical.

    *Meyers, Carol L. and Eric M. Meyers. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. AB. New York: Doubleday, 1987. Very detailed commentary with attention to possible historical backgrounds and parallels.

    Petersen, David L. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984. Well written and balanced critical approach, with an attempt to link with historical background.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    *Verhoef, Pieter A. The Books of Haggai and Malachi. NICOT. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Exposition with an eye to theological implications. Evangelical.

    Wolff, H.W. Haggai. Atlanta: Augsburg, 1988. Form critical perspective. Not as detailed as some of Wolff’s other commentaries.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. See under Haggai.

    *Meyers, Carol L. and Eric M. Meyers. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8 (vol. 1); Zechariah 9-14 (vol. 2). Garden City: Doubleday, 1987, 1993. See above under Haggai.

    Petersen, David L. Haggai, Zechariah 1-8. See under Haggai. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1995. See Haggai, Zechariah 1-8.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.


    Baldwin, Joyce G. Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. See under Haggai.

    *Petersen, David L. Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi. See above under Zechariah.

    Smith, Ralph L. Micah-Malachi. See above under Micah.

    *Verhoef, Pieter A. The Books of Haggai and Malachi. See above under Haggai.