Faculty/Staff Directory

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Richard S. Hess, PhD

Distinguished Professor of Old Testament and Semitic Languages

Dr. Richard Hess, who joined the faculty in 1997, is also the editor of the Denver Journal, Denver Seminary’s online theological review journal. He retired after ten years as editor of the Bulletin for Biblical Research but continues as (the founder and) editor of the Bulletin’s Supplement Series. Dr. Hess is a member of a dozen scholarly societies. Dr. Hess also co-edits the Septuagint Commentary Series.

Additional research interests include Old Testament exegesis and theology, Hebrew and ancient Near Eastern languages, biblical archaeology, and topics such as the transcendent value of human life and healing in biblical times. Dr. Hess is consultant to the postdoctoral research project on Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern Onomastics, Tyndale House, Cambridge. He also serves on the ETS Hebrew Bible / Old Testament Archaeology Planning Committee and on the Exploring the Composition of the Pentateuch Group.

Dr. Hess earned a PhD from Hebrew Union College, an MDiv and a ThM from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, and a BA from Wheaton College. He has done postdoctoral research at universities in Chicago, Jerusalem, Cambridge, Sheffield, and Münster, and has held National Endowment for the Humanities, Fulbright, and Tyndale House (Cambridge) postdoctoral fellowships and grants. He was lecturer in Old Testament and Hebrew at International Christian College, Scotland, and Reader in Old Testament at Roehampton University, London. Having lectured at more than one hundred scholarly societies, universities, and colleges, he has recently given invited lectures at Jerusalem University College, Jerusalem;  Gateway Seminary, Ontario, California; Westmont College, Santa Barbara; Lanier Theological Library, Houston; and the Irish Bible Institute, Dublin.

Dr. Hess is a member of the Committee on Bible Translation for the New International Version. He served as associate editor for the NIV Zondervan Study Bible. Dr. Hess has also worked as a translator for the New American Bible, the Holman Standard Christian Bible, the English Standard Version, and The Common English Bible translations of the Old Testament.

Dr. Hess has authored 9 books including: The Old Testament: A Historical, Theological, and Critical Introduction (Baker, 2016); volumes on religion (Israelite Religions: A Biblical and Archaeological Survey), ancient Near Eastern subjects (Amarna Personal Names and Names in the Study of Biblical History), Genesis (Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11), and commentaries on Leviticus, Joshua, and the Song of Songs. He has edited or co-edited 56 books, such as Ancient Israel’s History: An Introduction to Issues and Sources (co-editor B. T. Arnold); Reading Scripture Deeply (co-editor R. Richards); Exploring the Composition of the Pentateuch; and commentaries on Septuagint texts such as Exodus: A Commentary on the Greek Text of Codex Vaticanus (D. M Gurtner). In addition to several hundred book reviews and dictionary articles, Dr. Hess has published more than 100 scholarly articles in collected essays and journals such as Biblica, Biblical Archaeologist, Bulletin for Biblical Research, Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Themelios,Tyndale Bulletin, Vetus Testamentum, and Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Current research projects include a commentary on the books of Kings, Genesis background and theology, Israelite Religions, and the study of ancient Near Eastern texts related to the Old Testament.

Old Testament exegesis and theology, Israelite Religions, Personal Names in the ancient biblical world, Hebrew and ancient Near Eastern languages, biblical archaeology, the books of 2 Kings and of Joshua, and literacy, health, and the transcendent value of every human person in the Bible.

Books Authored

  • The Old Testament: A Historical, Theological, and Critical Introduction, Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2016.
  • Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1-11, Alter Orient und Altes Testament Band 234. Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1993. Reprinted, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2009.
  • Israelite Religions: An Archaeological and Biblical Survey, Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007. Translated into Korean June 2009.
  • Song of Songs, Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005. Korean translation, 2020.
  • Joshua. An Introduction and Commentary, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries 6. Leicester and Downers Grove: IVP, 1996. Reprinted, 2008. Translated into Chinese, Portugese, and Italian.
  • Amarna Personal Names, American Schools of Oriental Research Dissertation Series 9. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1993.
  • Amarna Proper Names, Ph.D. Dissertation, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1984.

Books Co-Authored

  • “Joshua,” pp. 2-93 in J. H. Walton, ed., Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary Volume 2. Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 & 2 Samuel, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
  • “Leviticus,” pp. 563-826 in T. Longman III and D. E .Garland eds., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary Revised Edition 1: Genesis–Leviticus, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2008.
  • Names in the Study of Biblical History: David, YHWH Names, and the Role of Personal Names, co-authored with Francis I. Andersen; Buried History Monograph 2; Melbourne: Australian Institute of Archaeology, 2007.

Books Edited and Co-Edited

  • NIV Biblical Theology Study Bible, co-editor with Don Carson, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2018.
  • NIV Zondervan Study Bible, co-editor with Don Carson, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015.
  • Reading Scripture Deeply: Millennials Take a Fresh Look at the Bible, co-editor with E. Randolph Richards. CreateSpace: Amazon, 2015.
  • Ancient Israel’s History: An Introduction to Issues and Sources, edited by Bill T. Arnold and Richard S. Hess. Grand Rapids: Baker, November 2014.Portuguese edition, 2020.
  • Critical Issues in Early Israelite History, co-editor with G. A. Klingbeil and P. J. Ray Jr., Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement 3, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2009.
  • War in the Bible and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century, co-editor with E. A. Martens, Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement 2, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2008.
  • Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context, co-editor with M. Daniel Carroll R., Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003.
  • Israel’s Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls, co-editor with M. Daniel Carroll R., Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003.  Reprinted, Eugene: Wipf & Stock, 2011. 192 pp.
  • Zion, City of Our God, co-editor with Gordon Wenham, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999. x + 206 pp.
  • Translating the Bible: Problems and Prospects, co-editor with Stanley Porter, Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 173, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999. 336 pp.
  • Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom, co-editor with Gordon Wenham, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998. x + 218 pages.
  • The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts, co-editor with Philip Satterthwaite and Gordon Wenham, Carlisle: Paternoster; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995.  Reprinted, Eugene: Wipf & Stock, 2012. x + 320 pages.
  • “I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood”: Ancient Near Eastern, Linguistic and Literary Approaches to Genesis 1-11, co-editor with David Tsumura, Sources for Biblical and Theological Study 4; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994. xvi + 480 pages.
  • He Swore an Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12-50, co-editor with Philip Satterthwaite and Gordon Wenham, Cambridge: Tyndale House, 1993; Second edition, Carlisle: Paternoster; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994. 222 pages. Translated and published in Indonesian, 1995.

Founder and Editor of Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplements Series

  • The Abyss in Revelation: A View from Below by Edward Gudeman.  BBRSupplement 28.  University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2021.
  • Exploring the Composition of the Pentateuch, edited by L. S. Baker Jr., Kenneth Bergland, Felipe A. Masotti, and A. Rahel Wells. BBRSupplement 27. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2020.
  • Death and Divine Judgement in Ecclesiastes by Kumiko Takeuchi. BBRSupplement 26. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2019.
  • You Shall Know that I Am Yahweh: An Inner-Biblical Interpretation of Ezekiel’s Recognition Formula by John F. Evans. BBRSupplement 25. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2019.
  • The Law’s Universal Condemning and Enslaving Power: Reading Paul, the Old Testament, and Second Temple Jewish Literature by Bryan Blazosky. BBRSupplement 24. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2019.
  • A New Look at Atonement in Leviticus: The Meaning and Purpose of kipper Revisited by James Greenberg. BBRSupplement 23. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2019.
  • Signs of Continuity: The Function of Miracles in Jesus and Paul by Greg Rhodea. BBRSupplement 22. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2019.
  • “I Will Walk Among You:” The Rhetorical Function of Allusion to Genesis 1-3 in the Book of Leviticus by G. Geoffrey Harper. BBRSupplement 21. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2018. 978-1-57506-973-9.
  • Poor and Rich in James: A Relevance Theory Approach to James’s Use of the Old Testament by Nelson R. Morales. BBR Supplement 20. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-57506-782-7.
  • Bearing Yhwh’s Name at Sinai: A Reexamination of the Name Command of the Decalogue by Carmen Joy Imes. BBR Supplement 19. University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-57506-772-8.
  • Trees and Kings: A Comparative Analysis of Tree Imagery in Israel’s Prophetic Tradition and the Ancient Near East by William R. Osborne. BBR Supplement 18. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-57506-750-6.
  • Making Sense of the Divine Name in Exodus: From Etymology to Literary Onomastics by Austin Surls. BBR Supplement 17. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-57506-483-3.
  • Hope for a Tender Sprig: Jehoiachin in Biblical Theology by Matthew H. Patton. BBR Supplement 16. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-57506-477-2.
  • Hostility in the House of God: An Investigation of the Opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy by Dillon T. Thornton. BBR Supplement 15. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2016.
  • Honor, Shame, and Guilt: Social-Scientific Approaches to the Book of Ezekiel by Daniel Y. Wu. BBR Supplement 14. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2016.
  • “Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?” Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives, edited by James K. Hoffmeier, Alan R. Millard, and Gary A. Rendsburg. BBR Supplement 13. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2016.
  • Paul and His Mortality: Imitating Christ in the Face of Death by R. Gregory Jenks. BBR Supplement 12. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
  • Wealth in Ancient Ephesus and the First Letter to Timothy: Fresh Insights from Ephesiaca by Xenophon of Ephesus by Gary C. Hoag. BBR Supplement 11. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
  • Wrestling with the Violence of God: Soundings in the Old Testament, edited by M. Daniel Carroll R. and J. Blair Wilgus. BBR Supplement 10. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
  • Sacred Ritual: A Study of the West Semitic Ritual Calendars in Leviticus 23 and the Akkadian Text Emar 446, by Bryan C. Babcock, BBR Supplement 9. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2014.
  • Melchizedek’s Alternative Priestly Order: A Compositional Analysis of Genesis 14:18-20 and Its Echoes throughout the Tanak, by Joshua G. Mathews, BBR Supplement 8. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2013.
  • Poetic Imagination in Proverbs: Variant Repetitions and the Nature of Poetry, by Knut Martin Heim, BBR Supplement 4. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2013.
  • Toward a Poetics of Genesis 1-11: Reading Genesis 4:17-22 in Its Ancient Near Eastern Background, by Daniel DeWitt Lowery, BBR Supplement 7. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2013.
  • The Iron Age I Structure on Mt. Ebal: Excavation and Interpretation, by Ralph K. Hawkins, BBR Supplement 6. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2012.
  • Divine Sabbath Work, by Michael H. Burer, BBR Supplements 5. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2012.
  • Critical Issues in Early Israelite History, co-editor with G. A. Klingbeil and P. J. Ray Jr., BBR Supplements 3. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2008.
  • War in the Bible and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century, co-editor with E. A. Martens, BBR Supplements 2. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2008.
  • Bridging the Gap: Ritual and Ritual Texts in the Bible, by Gerald A. Klingbeil, BBR Supplements 1. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

Editor of Septuagint Commentary Series with S. Porter and J. Jarrick

  • Isaiah by Ken M. Penner. Leiden: Brill, 2020.
  • Proverbs: A Commentary Based on Paroimiai in Codex Vaticanus by Al Wolters. Leiden: Brill, 2020.
  • Leviticus: A Commentary on Leueitikon in Codex Vaticanus by Mark A. Awabdy. Leiden: Brill, 2020.
  • Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah: A Commentary Based on the Texts in Codex Vaticanus, by Sean A. Adams. Leiden: Brill, 2014.
  • Amos: A Commentary Based on Amos in Codex Vaticanus, by W. Edward Glenny. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
  • Exodus: A Commentary on the Greek Text of Codex Vaticanus, by Daniel M. Gurtner. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
  • Hosea: A Commentary Based on Hosea in Codex Vaticanus, by W. Edward Glenny. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
  • 1 Esdras: Introduction and Commentary on the Greek Text in Codex Vaticanus, by Michael F. Bird. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Jeremiah: A Commentary Based on Ieremias in Codex Vaticanus, by Georg A. Walser. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Ezekiel: A Commentary Based on Iezekiēl in Codex Vaticanus, by John W. Olley. Leiden: Brill, 2009.
  • Tobit, by Robert J. Littman. Leiden: Brill, 2008.
  • Genesis, by Susan Brayford. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • 4 Maccabees, by David A. deSilva. Leiden: Brill, 2006.
  • 3 Maccabees, by N. Clayton Croy. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
  • Joshua: Jesus Son of Naue in Codex Vaticanus, by A. Graeme Auld. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
  • Issues in Bible Translation, comprising The Bible Translator 56/3 (July 2005), co-editor with P. Towner.
  • Research assistant for The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew: Volume 1: Aleph, ed. D. J. A. Clines, Sheffield: Academic Press, 1993.

Editor of Septuagint Commentary Series Supplements with S. Porter

  • Translation and Style in the Old Greek Psalter: What Pleases Israel’s God by Jennifer Brown Jones.  Leiden: Brill, 2022.

Peer-Reviewed / Scholarly Articles

  • “Appendix 2: Apologetic Issues in the Old Testament,” pp. 717-31 in Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics: A Comprehensive Case for Biblical Faith (2nd edition; Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2022).
  • “Cultural Contexts Compared: The Onomastic Profiles of the Books of Joshua and Judges,” pp. 413-22 in Ralph K. Hawkins, Erasmus Gaß, and Dror Ben-Yosef eds., His Inheritance: A Memorial Volume for Adam Zertal (Alter Orient und Altes Testament Band 454; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2021).
  • “The COVID-19 Virus, Illness, and Biblical Interpretation in Its Ancient Context,” Canon and Culture: A Journal of Biblical Interpretation in Context 14.2 (2020): 51-83.
  • “Second-Millennium BC Cuneiform from the Southern Levant and the Literature of the Pentateuch,” pp. 66-72 in L. S. Baker Jr., Kenneth Bergland, Felipe A. Masotti, and A. Rahel Wells eds., Exploring the Composition of the Pentateuch (BBR Supplement 27; University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2020).
  • “Literacy and Postmodern Fallacies,” pp. 384-91 in D. I. Block, D. C. Deuel, C. J. Collins, and P. J. N. Lawrence eds., Write That They May Read: Studies in Literacy and Textualization in the Ancient Near East and in the Hebrew Scriptures: Essays in Honour of Professor Alan R. Millard (University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2020).
  • “Addendum by Richard S. Hess,” (Addendum to Terence Mitchell, “Another Inscribed Arrowhead in the British Museum,” pp. 44-51) pp. 51-52 in D. I. Block, D. C. Deuel, C. J. Collins, and P. J. N. Lawrence eds., Write That They May Read: Studies in Literacy and Textualization in the Ancient Near East and in the Hebrew Scriptures: Essays in Honour of Professor Alan R. Millard (University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2020).
  • “The Genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 and Comparative Studies: Evidence for a Seam,” pp. 145-56 in R. E. Averbeck and K. L. Younger Jr. eds., “An Excellent Fortress for His Armies, a Refuge for the People”: Egyptological, Archaeological, and Biblical Studies in Honor of James K. Hoffmeier (University Park: Eisenbrauns, 2020).
  • “The Family in the Old Testament as a Theological Model for Covenant Community,” pp. 270-79 in A. T. Abernethy ed., Interpreting the Old Testament Theologically: Essays in Honor of Willem A. VanGemeren (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2018).
  • “The Ancestral Period,” pp. 187-93 in J. S. Greer, J. W. Hilber, and J. H. Walton eds., Behind the Scenes of the Old Testament: Cultural, Social, and Historical Contexts (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2018).
  • “Sacred Spaces and Holy Places,” pp. 317-51with Denys Pringle in R. G. Hoyland and H. G. M. Williamson eds., The Oxford Illustrated History of the Holy Land (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).
  • “The Religions of the People Israel and Their Neighbors,” pp. 477-502 in J. Ebeling, J. E. Wright, M. Elliott, and P. V. M. Flesher eds., The Old Testament in Archaeology and History (Waco: Baylor University Press, 2017).
  • “Administrative Document from Hebron (4.77),” p. 261; “Cylinder Letter from Tagi to Labaya (Beth Sehan 2) (4.78),” pp. 261-62: “The Taanach Tablets (4.79A–D),” pp. 262-64; “The El-Amarna Letters (4.80-86): Pharaoh to Kadashman-Enlil (EA 1) (4.80), Rib-Adda to the Pharaoh of Egypt (Amenhotep III) (EA 74) (4.81), Letter from the General to Rib-Adda of Byblos Concerning the Recovery of Lost Asses (EA 96) (4.82), Threatening Letter from the Pharaoh to Aziru (EA 162) (4.83), Letter of Mayarzana of Hasi to the Pharaoh about Amanhatpe’s Conquests of Towns in the Region (EA 185) (4.84), Labaya of Shechem Writes the Pharaoh to Explain His Loyalty (EA 252) (4.85),” pp. 264-71; “Tell el-Hesi Letter (EA 333) (4.86),” p. 271; “Cuneiform Texts from Hazor 8, 10, 12, 18 (4.87A–D),” pp. 271-73, in K. Lawson Younger, Jr., ed., The Context of Scripture: Volume 4: Supplements (Leiden: Brill, 2017).
  • “Setting Scholarship Back a Hundred Years? Method in the Septuagint Commentary Series,” pp. 63-68 in L. K. Fuller Dow, C. A. Evans, and A. W. Pitts eds., Language and Literature of the New Testament: Essays in Honor of Stanley E. Porter’s 60th Birthday (Biblical Interpretation Series 150; Leiden: Brill, 2016).
  • “Onomastics of the Exodus Generation in the Book of Exodus,” pp. 37-48 in J. K. Hoffmeier, A. R. Millard, and G. A. Rendsburg eds., “Did I Not Bring Israel Out of Egypt?” Biblical, Archaeological, and Egyptological Perspectives on the Exodus Narratives (BBR Supplement 13; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2016).
  • “Joshua and Egypt,” pp. 144-50 in C. Cohen, C. Gottlieb, and M. Gruber eds., Visions of Life in Biblical Times in Honor of Meir Lubetski (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 76; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2015).
  • “The Value of Human Life and Capital Punishment,” pp. 1-21 in D. Noelliste and M. D. Carroll R. eds., Exploring the Basis and Ethical Implications of Capital Punishment (Denver Seminary’s Vernon Grounds Institute of Public Ethics Monograph Series 8; Denver: Denver Seminary’s Vernon Grounds Institute of Public Ethics, 2015).
  • “Personal Names in the Hebrew Bible with Second-Millennium B.C. Antecedents,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 25 (2015): 5-12.
  • “Introduction: Foundations for a History of Israel,” pp. 1-20 in R. S. Hess and Bill T. Arnold eds., Ancient Israel’s History: An Introduction to Issues and Sources (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014).
  • “’Because of the Wickedness of These Nations’ (Deut 9:4-5): The Canaanites – Ethical or Not?” pp. 17-38 in Jason S. DeRouchie, Jason Gile, and Kenneth J. Turner eds., For Our Good Always: Studies on the Message and Influence of Deuteronomy in Honor of Daniel I. Block (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2013).
  • “The Use of the Old Testament in New Testament Commentaries,” pp. 131-146 in Stanley E. Porter and Eckhard J. Schnabel eds., On the Writing of New Testament Commentaries: Festschrift for Grant R. Osborne on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. Texts and Editions for New Testament Study 8; Leiden: Brill, 2013.
  • “The Distinctive Value of Human Life in Israel’s Earliest Legal Traditions,” pp. 221-228 in Gershon Galil, Ayelet Gilboa, Aren M. Maeir, and Dan’el Kahn eds., The Ancient Near East in the 12th–10th Centuries BCE: Culture and History: Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the University of Haifa, 2–5 May, 2010 (Alter Orient und Altes Testament 392; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2012).
  • “Katuwas and the Masoretic Text of Kings: Cultural Connections between Carchemish and Israel,” pp. 171-182 in M. Lubetski and E. Lubetski eds., New Inscriptions and Seals Relating to the Biblical World (SBL Archaeology and Biblical Studies 19; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Studies, 2012).
  • “Yahweh’s ‘Wife’ and Belief in One God in the Old Testament,” pp. 459-76 in James K. Hoffmeier and Dennis R. Magary eds., Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith? A Critical Appraisal of Modern and Postmodern Approaches to Scripture (Wheaton: Crossway, 2012).
  • “Did Yahweh Have a Wife?  Iron Age Religion in Israel and Its Neighbors,” pp. 189-224 in Paul Copan and William Lane Craig eds., Come Let Us Reason: New Essays in Christian Apologetics (Nashville: B&H Publishing, 2012).
  • “Bezalel and Oholiab: Spirit and Creativity,” pp. 161-172 in David G. Firth and Paul D. Wegner eds., Presence, Power and Promise: The Role of the Spirit of God in the Old Testament (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 2011).
  • “The Seventy-Sevens of Daniel 9: A Timetable for the Future?” Bulletin for Biblical Research 21 (2011) 315-330.
  • “Appendix 2: Apologetic Issues in the Old Testament,” pp. 662-76 in Douglas Groothuis, Christian Apologetics: A Comprehensive Case for Biblical Faith (Downers Grove: IVP Academic; Nottingham: Apollos, 2011).
  • “David and Abishag: The Purpose of 1 Kings 1:1-4,” pp. 427-437 in G. Galil, M. Geller, and A. Millard eds., Homeland and Exile: Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Bustenay Oded (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 130; Leiden: Brill, 2009).
  • “God and Origins: Interpreting the Early Chapters of Genesis,” pp. 86-98 in R. J. Berry and T. A. Noble eds., Darwin, Creation and the Fall: Theological Challenges (Nottingham: Apollos, 2009).
  • “Questions of Reading and Writing in Ancient Israel,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 19 (2009) 1-9.
  • “The Future Written in the Past:  The Old Testament and the Millennium,” pp. 23-36 in C. L. Blomberg and S. W. Chung eds., A Case for Historic Premillennialism: An Alternative to “Left Behind” Eschatology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2009).
  • “The Jericho and Ai of the Book of Joshua,” pp. 33-46 in R. S. Hess, G. A. Klingbeil and P. J. Ray Jr. eds., Critical Issues in Early Israelite History (Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement 3; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2008).
  • “Syria and the Bible:  The Luwian Connection,” pp. 169-184 in D. I. Block ed., Israel: Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2008).
  • “War in the Hebrew Bible: An Overview,” pp. 19-32 in R. S. Hess and E. A. Martens eds., War in the Bible and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century (Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplement 2; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2008).
  • “Cultural Aspects of Onomastic Distribution throughout Southern Canaan in Light of New Evidence,” Ugarit-Forschungen 38 (2006) 353-362 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2007).
  • “Personal Names in Cuneiform Texts from Middle Bronze Age Palestine,” pp. 153-161 in W. G. E. Watson ed., “He Unfurrowed His Brow and Laughed:” Essays in Honour of Nicolas Wyatt (Alter Orient und Altes Testament Band 299; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2007).
  • “Aspects of Israelite Personal Names and Pre-Exilic Israelite Religion,” pp. 301-313 in M. Lubetski ed., New Seals and Inscriptions, Hebrew, Idumean and Cuneiform (Hebrew Bible Monographs, 8; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007).
  • “Arrowheads from Iron Age I: Personal Names and Authenticity,” pp. 113-129 in K. L. Younger ed., Ugarit at Seventy-Five (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007).
  • “Going Down to Sheol: A Place Name and Its West Semitic Background,” pp. 245-253 in J. G. McConville and K. Möller eds., Reading the Law: Studies in Honour of Gordon J. Wenham (Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies 461; New York: T & T Clark International, 2007).
  • “Writing about Writing: Abecedaries and Evidence for Literacy in Ancient Israel,” Vetus Testamentum 56 (2006) 342-346.
  • “Single-Word Cola in the Song of Songs?” Journal of Asia Adventist Seminary 9 (2006) 119-128.
  • “Adam, Father, He: Gender Issues in Hebrew Translation,” in R. Hess and P. Towner eds., The Bible Translator 56/3 (July 2005) 144-153.
  • “The Name Game: Dating the Book of Judges,” Biblical Archaeology Review 30/6 (November/December 2004) 38-41.
  • “Genesis 1-3: Egalitarianism with and without Innocence,” pp. 79-95 in R. W. Pirece, R. M. Groothuis, and G. D. Fee eds., Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without Hierarchy (Downers Grove: IVP, 2004).
  • “Multi-Month Ritual Calendars in the West Semitic World: Emar 446 and Leviticus 23,” pp. 233-253 in J. Hoffmeier and A. Millard eds., The Future of Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004).
  • “‘Geshurite’ Onomastica of the Bronze and Iron Ages,” pp. 49-62 in R. Arav and R. A. Freund eds., Bethsaida: A City by the North Shore of the Sea of Galilee (Volume Three: Bethsaida Excavations Project Report & Contextual Studies; Kirksville: Truman State University, 2004).
  • “Biblical Principles in Educating Military Officers: A Judeo-Christian Background to Ethics,” pp. 22-25 (English), 129-132 (Korean) in 21st Century Military Ethical Leadership (Seoul: Sungkyul University, 2004).
  • “Rhetorical Forms in the Amarna Correspondence from Jerusalem,” Maarav 10 (2003) 221-244.
  • “Israelite Identity and Personal Names in the Book of Judges,” Hebrew Studies 44 (2003) 25-39.
  • “Preliminary Perspectives on Late Bronze Age Culture from the Personal Names in Palestinian Cuneiform Texts,” Dutch Studies in Near Eastern Languages and Literatures 5/1-2 (2003) 35-57.
  • “Messiahs Here and There,” pp. 103-108 in R. Hess and M. D. Carroll R. eds., Israel’s Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003).
  • “The Book of Joshua as a Land Grant,” Biblica 83 (2002) 493-506.
  • “Alalakh: Letter Asking for the Return of Stolen Donkeys (AT 116) (3.91),” p. 236; “Sale Transactions (3.99): The Purchase of Beer (AT 33) (3.99A); Sale of a Town (AT 52) (3.99B); Manumissions: Receipt for the Purchase of a Debt Slave (AT 65) (3.100); Marriage Agreements: Palace Receipt for the Return of a Marriage Gift (AT 17) (3.101A); Marriage Customs (AT 92) (3.101B); Seven Years of Barrenness before a Second Wife (AT 93) (3.101C); Loan Transactions: Security for a Loan (AT 18) (3.102A); Transfer of Creditors (AT 28) (3.102B),” pp. 249-254; “List of Hapiru Soldiers (AT 180) (3.125); Administrative Record (AT 457) (3.126),” pp. 276-278; “Wills: Inheritance of a Brother and a Sister (AT 7) (3.129),” p. 283 in W. W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds., The Context of Scripture: Volume III Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 2002).
  • “Typology of a Late Bronze Age Administrative Tablet from Hazor,” Ugarit-Forschungen 33 (2001) 237-243 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2002).
  • “Leviticus 10:1: Strange Fire and an Odd Name,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 12 (2002) 187-198.
  • “The Bible and Alalakh,” pp. 209-221 in M. W. Chavalas and K. L. Younger, Jr. eds., Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations (Grand Rapids: Baker; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press; London and New York: Continuum, 2002).
  • “Literacy in Iron Age Israel, ” pp. 82-102 in V. P. Long, D. W. Baker, and G. J. Wenham eds., Windows into Old Testament History: Evidence, Argument, and the Crisis of “Biblical  Israel” (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002).
  • “The Old Testament as a Model for Cultural Transformation: Perspectives from Archaeology,” Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 46 (2001) 1-7.
  • “Ancient Near Eastern Studies,” pp. 201-220 in G. Broyles ed., Interpreting the Old Testament: A Guide for Exegesis (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001).
  • “Canaan and Canaanites at Alalakh,” Ugarit-Forschungen 31 (1999) 225-236 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2000).
  • “Alalakh: 1. Treaties: Abbael’s Gift of Alalakh (AT 1) (2.127); The Agreement between Ir-addu and Niqmepa (AT 2) (2.128); Agreement between Pillia and Idrimi (AT 3) (2.129),” pp. 329-332; “Alalakh: 5. Royal Grants: Will of Ammitaku Leader of Alalakh (AT 6*) (2.136); Land Grant (AT 456*) (2.137),” pp. 368-370 in W. W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds., The Context of Scripture: Volume II Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 2000).
  • “The Mayarzana Correspondence: Rhetoric and Conquest Accounts,” Ugarit-Forschungen 30 (1998) 335-351 (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1999).
  • “Early Israel in Canaan: A Survey of Recent Evidence and Interpretations,” pp. 492-518 in V. Philips Long ed., Israel’s Past in Present Research: Essays on Ancient Israelite Historiography (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study 7; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1999).  Reprint of “Early Israel in Canaan: A Survey of Recent Evidence and Interpretations,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 126 (1993) 125-142.
  • “Joshua 10 and the Sun that Stood Still,” Buried History 35/1 (1999) 26-33.
  • “The Onomastics of Ugarit,” pp. 499-528 in W. G. E. Watson and N. Wyatt eds., Handbook of Ugaritic Studies (Handbook of Oriental Studies; First Part: The Near and Middle East, Band 39; Leiden: Brill, 1999).
  • “Hezekiah and Sennacherib in 2 Kings 18-20,” pp. 23-41 in R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham eds., Zion, City of Our God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).
  • “Reflections on Translating Joshua,” pp. 125-141 in S. E. Porter and R. S. Hess eds., Translating the Bible: Problems and Prospects (JSNT Supplement 173; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999).
  • “Judges 1-5 and Its Translation,” pp. 142-160 in S. E. Porter and R. S. Hess eds., Translating the Bible: Problems and Prospects (JSNT Supplement 173; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999).
  • “Issues in the Study of Personal Names in the Hebrew Bible,” Currents in Biblical Research 6 (1998) 169-192.
  • “Occurrences of Canaan in Late Bronze Age Archives of the West Semitic World,” pp. 365-372 in Sh. Izre’el, I. Singer, and R. Zadok eds., Israel Oriental Studies 18: Past Links: Studies in the Languages and Cultures of the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1998).
  • “Bringing Alive the Old Testament: Its Role in the Wider Curriculum,” pp. 3-18 in R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham eds., Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998).
  • “Rhetorical Forms in Joshua 10:4,” pp. 363-367 in M. Dietrich and I. Kottsieper eds., “Und Moses schrieb dieses Lied auf”: Studien zum Alten Testament und zum Alten Orient. Festschrift für Oswald Loretz zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebensjahres mit Beiträgen von Freunden, Schülern und Kollegen (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1998).
  • “The Late Bronze Age Alalakh Texts at the Australian Institute of Archaeology,” Buried History 34/1 (March 1998) 4-9.
  • “The Form and Structure of the Solomonic District List in 1 Kings 4: 7-19,” pp. 279-292 in G. D. Young, M. W. Chavalas, and R. E. Averbeck eds., Crossing Boundaries and Linking Horizons: Studies in Honor of Michael C. Astour (Bethesda, Maryland: CDL, 1997).
  • “The Dead Sea Scrolls and Higher Criticism of the Hebrew Bible: The Case of 4QJudga,” pp. 122-128 in S. E. Porter and C. A. Evans eds., The Scrolls and the Scriptures: Qumran Fifty Years After (Journal for the Study of Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series 26; Roehampton Institute London Papers 3; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997).
  • “West Semitic Texts and the Book of Joshua,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 7 (1997) 63-76.
  • “Getting Personal: What Names in the Bible Teach Us,” Bible Review 13/6 (December 1997) 30-37.
  • “Hurrians and Other Inhabitants of Late Bronze Age Palestine,” Levant 29 (1997) 153-156.
  • “The Image of the Messiah in the Old Testament,” pp. 22-33 in S. E. Porter, M. A. Hayes, and D. Tombs eds., Images of Christ: Ancient and Modern (Roehampton Institute London Papers 2; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997).
  • “Non-Israelite Personal Names in the Book of Joshua,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 58 (1996) 205-214.
  • “Asherah or Asherata?” Orientalia 65 (1996) 209-219.
  • “A Typology of West Semitic Place Name Lists with Special Reference to Joshua 13-21,” Biblical Archaeologist 59/3 (September 1996) 160-170.
  • “A Comparison of the Ugarit, Emar and Alalakh Archives,” pp. 75-83 in N. Wyatt, W. G. E. Watson and J. B. Lloyd eds., Ugarit, Religion and Culture. Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Ugarit, Religion and Culture Edinburgh, July 1994. Essays Presented in Honour of John C. L. Gibson (Ugaritisch-Biblische Literatur 12; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1996).
  • “Joshua 1-12 as a Centrist Document,” pp. 53-67 in M. Augustin and K.-D. Schunck eds., “Dort ziehen Schiffe dahin…” Collected Communications to the XIVth Congress of the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament, Paris 1992 (Beiträge zur Erforschung des Alten Testaments und des Antiken Judentums 28; Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1996).
  • “Genesis 1-2 and Recent Studies of Ancient Texts,” Science and Christian Belief 7 (1995) 141-149.
  • “Alalakh Text 457,” Ugarit Forschungen 26 (1994), 501-508, co-authored with D. J. Wiseman.
  • “Achan and Achor: Names and Wordplay in Joshua 7,” Hebrew Annual Review 14 (1994) 89-98.
  • “Alalakh and the Bible: Obstacle or Contribution?” pp. 199-215 in M. D. Coogan, J. C. Exum, and L. E. Stager eds., Scripture and Other Artifacts. Essays on Archaeology and the Bible in Honor of Philip J. King (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1994).
  • “Fallacies in the Study of Early Israel: An Onomastic Perspective,” Tyndale Bulletin 45 (1994) 339-354.
  • “One Hundred Fifty Years of Comparative Studies on Genesis 1-11: An Overview,” pp. 3-26 in R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura eds., “I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood”: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11 (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study 4; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994).
  • “The Geneaologies of Genesis 1-11 and Comparative Literature,” pp. 58-72 in R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura eds., “I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood”: Ancient Near Eastern, Literary, and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1-11 (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study 4; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994).  Reprint of “The Genealogies of Genesis 1-11 and Comparative Literature,” Biblica 70 (1989) 241-254.
  • “Asking Historical Questions of Joshua 13-19: Recent Discussion Concerning the Date of the Boundary Lists,” pp. 191-205 in A. R. Millard, J. K. Hoffmeier and D. W. Baker eds., Faith, Tradition, History: Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994).
  • “Late Bronze Age and Biblical Boundary Descriptions of the West Semitic World,” pp. 123-138 in G. Brooke, A. Curtis and J. Healey eds., Ugarit and the Bible: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ugarit and the Bible. Manchester, September 1992 (Ugaritisch-Biblische Literatur Band 11; Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1994).
  • “The Southern Desert,” Archaeology in the Biblical World 2/2 (Spring 1994) 22-33.
  • “The Roles of the Woman and the Man in Genesis 3,” Themelios 18 (April 1993) 15-19.
  • “The Slaughter of the Animals in Genesis 15: 18-21 and Its Ancient Near Eastern Context,” pp. 55-65 in R. S. Hess, P. E.  Satterthwaite, and G. J. Wenham eds., He Swore an Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12-50 (Cambridge: Tyndale House, 1993; Second edition; Carlisle: Paternoster; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994).
  • “Smitten Ant Bites Back: Rhetorical Forms in the Amarna Correspondence from Shechem,” pp. 95-111 in J. C. de Moor and W. G. E. Watson eds., Verse in Ancient Near Eastern Prose (Alter Orient und Altes Testament Band 42, Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1993).
  • “Observations on Some Unpublished Alalakh Texts, Probably from Level IV,” Ugarit Forschungen 24 (1992) 113-115.
  • “Lamech in the Genealogies of Genesis,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 1 (1991) 21-25.
  • “Yahweh and His Asherah? Epigraphic Evidence for Religious Pluralism in Old Testament Times,” pp. 5-33 in A. D. Clarke and B. W. Winter eds., One God, One Lord in a World of Religious Pluralism (Cambridge: Tyndale House, 1991).  Revised and reprinted, “Yahweh and His Asherah?  Religious Pluralism in the Old Testament World,” pp. 13-42 in idem, One God, One Lord. Christianity in a World of Religious Pluralism (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993).
  • “Hiphil Forms of qwr in Jeremiah vi 7,” Vetus Testamentum 41 (1991): 147-150.
  • “The Divine Name Yahweh in Late Bronze Age Sources?” Ugarit Forschungen 23 (1991): 181-188.
  • “The Operation of Case Vowels in the Personal Names of the Amarna Texts,” pp. 201-210 in Mesopotamie et Elam: Actes de la xxxvième rencontre assyriologique internationale Gand, 10-14 juillet 1989 (Mesopotamian History and Environment Occasional Publications 1, Ghent, 1991).
  • “Splitting the Adam: The Usage of ‘ADAM in Genesis i-v,” pp. 1-15 in J.A. Emerton ed., Studies in the Pentateuch (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum XLI; Leiden: Brill, 1990).
  • “Genesis 1–2 in Its Literary Context,” Tyndale Bulletin 41 (1990): 143-153.
  • “Rhetorical Forms in EA 162,” Ugarit Forschungen 22 (1990): 137-148.
  • “A Comparison of the Onomastica in Genealogical and Narrative Texts of Genesis 1-11,” pp. 67-74 in D. Assaf ed., Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies: Jerusalem, August 16-24, 1989: Division A: The Bible and Its World (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1990).
  • “Hebrew Psalms and Amarna Correspondence from Jerusalem: Some Comparisons and Implications,” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 101 (1989): 249-265.
  • “Cultural Aspects of Onomastic Distribution in the Amarna Texts,” Ugarit Forschungen 21 (1989): 209-216.
  • “A Preliminary List of the Published Alalakh Texts,” Ugarit Forschungen 20 (1988): 69-87.
  • ‘ADAM as ‘Skin’ and ‘Earth’:  An Examination of Some Proposed Meanings in Biblical Hebrew,” Tyndale Bulletin 39 (1988): 141-149.
  • “Divine Names in the Amarna Correspondence,” Ugarit Forschungen 18 (1986): 149-168.
  • “Personal Names from Amarna: Alternative Readings and Interpretations,” Ugarit Forschungen 17 (1985): 157-167.

General Articles

  • “Peacemaking in a Biblical Context,” Engage Magazine: Denver Seminary (Fall/Winter 2021, appeared January 2022) 5-8.
  • “How to Read Kings Theologically,” Credo (April 6, 2020) online magazine.
  • “Is the God of the Old Testament a God of Hate or of Love?” pp. 38-74 in Nam Jun Kim ed., The 6th Reformed Theology Seminar (Seoul: Yullin Church, 2019).
  • “Connecting the Bible and the Ancient World,” Bible Study Magazine 11/4 (May/June 2019) 23-25.
  • “The Reformation and Old Testament: The Example of Joshua 1,” Journal of the Institute of Biblical Studies 92/1 (Spring 2017) 5-17 (English) and 18-25 (Korean).
  • “Introduction,” pp. 3-9 in Richard S. Hess and E. Randolph Richards, eds., Reading Scripture Deeply: Millennials Take a Fresh Look at the Bible (International Reference Library for Biblical Research, 2015).
  • “Introduction to Genesis,” pp. 17-24 in Don Carson, Richard S. Hess, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander eds., NIV Zondervan Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015).
  • “Genesis 1:1-11:26,” pp. 25-45 in Don Carson, Richard S. Hess, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander eds., NIV Zondervan Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015).
  • “Introduction to the Historical Books,” pp. 374-78 in Don Carson, Richard S. Hess, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander eds., NIV Zondervan Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015).
  • “Joshua,” pp. 379-422 in Don Carson, Richard S. Hess, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander eds., NIV Zondervan Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015).
  • “Song of Songs,” pp. 1282-98 in Don Carson, Richard S. Hess, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander eds., NIV Zondervan Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015).
  • “Introduction to the Prophetic Books,” pp. 1299-1306 in Don Carson, Richard S. Hess, Douglas Moo, and Desmond Alexander eds., NIV Zondervan Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015).
  • “25 Years of Publishing BBR,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 25 (2015): 1-3.
  • “Introduction,” pp. 3-12 in Richard S. Hess and E. Randolph Richards, Reading Scripture Deeply: Millennials Take a Fresh Look at the Bible (CreateSpace, 2015).
  • “Preface,” pp. v-vi in R. S. Hess and Bill T. Arnold eds., Ancient Israel’s History: An Introduction to Issues and Sources (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014).
  • “Is the God of the Bible Cruel?” Engage Magazine (Fall 2014): 7-9.
  • “A Student’s Appreciation,” pp. viii-ix in B. T. Arnold, N. Erickson, and J. H. Walton eds., Windows to the Ancient World of the Hebrew Bible: Essays in Honor of Samuel Greengus (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2014).
  • “Justice and Mercy: The Old Testament Background to the Teaching of Jesus,” pp. 296-312 in Myung Sung 30th Anniversary Theological Seminary (Seoul: Myung Sung Presbyterian Church, 2009).  Korean Translation on pp. 137-154.
  • “Evidence for Equality in Genesis 1-3,” 7/3 (Autumn 2008) 8.11. Online at http://www.cbeinternational.org/new/E-Journal/2008/E-Quality_7.3_Evidence_for_Biblical_Equality.pdf
  • “Joshua and the Promised Land,” pp. 170-181 in B. J. Beitzel ed., Biblica The Bible Atlas: A Social and Historical Journey through the Lands of the Bible (Hauppage, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 2007).
  • “Song of Songs: Not Just a Dirty Book,” Bible Review 21.5 (Winter 2005): 30-40.
  • “Editors’ Preface,” with M. D. Carroll R., pp. 8-10 in R. S. Hess and M. D. Carroll R. eds., Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003).
  • “Editors’ Preface,” with M. D. Carroll R., pp.9-10 in R. S. Hess and M. D. Carroll R. eds., Israel’s Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003).
  • “Zion, City of Our God,” pp. ix – x in R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham eds., Zion, City of Our God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).
  • “Introduction: The Problems and Prospects of Translating the Bible,” with S. E. Porter, pp. 13-16 in S. E. Porter and R. S. Hess eds.,Translating the Bible: Problems and Prospects (JSNT Supplement 173; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999).
  • “Introduction,” Denver Journal 1 (1998) 0001.
  • “Preface,” p. x in P. E. Satterthwaite, R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham eds., The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts (Carlisle: Paternoster; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1995).
  • “Preface,” pp. xi-xii in R. S. Hess and D. T. Tsumura eds., “I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood”: Ancient Near Eastern, Linguistic and Literary Approaches to Genesis 1-11 (Sources for Biblical and Theological Study 4; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994).
  • “Perspectives on a Christian Liberal Arts Education,” Vision: The Bulletin of the Glasgow Theological Forum 3/4 (1993): 8-11.
  • “Isaiah 53:5, Context and Content,” Vision: The Bulletin of the Glasgow Theological Forum 3/1 (1993): 7-10.
  • “Eden – A Well-Watered Place,” Bible Review 7/6 (December 1991): 28-33.
  • “Creator of Heaven and Earth,” Touchstone: A Journal of Ecumenical Orthodoxy 3/3 (Fall 1989): 9-10, 43.
  • “Peoples and Places: Historical Geography in the Amarna Correspondence,” American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 37 (1986): 13.

Review Articles

  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 1 (1998) 0101: “An Annotated Bibliography of Old Testament Studies,” with M. Daniel Carroll R. Revised, volume 2 (1999) 0101; volume 3 (2000) 0101; volume 4 (2001) 0101; volume 5 (2002) 0101; volume 6 (2003); volume 7 (2004); volume 8 (2005); volume 9 (2006) with M. Daniel Carroll R. and Hélène Dallaire; volume 10 (2007); volume 11 (2008); volume 12 (2009); volume 13 (2010); volume 14 (2011); volume 15 (2012); volume 16 (2013); volume 17 (2014); volume 18 (2015); volume 19 (2016); volume 20 (2017) with Hélène Dallaire; volume 21 (2018); volume 22 (2019); volume 23 (2020); volume 24 (2021); volume 25 (2022).
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 25 (2022): “A 2020 Update of What is Happening in the Study of Biblical Hebrew (and Aramaic): A Review Article of Benjamin J. Noonan, Advances in the Study of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic: New Insights for Reading the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Academic, 2020).”
  • Bulletin for Biblical Research 30 (2020) 261-276: “An Archaeological Synthesis of Israel’s History.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 23 (2020): “Text and History: Reassessing the Relationship between the Bible and Archaeological Findings: A Review Essay.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 23 (2020): “Response to ‘Reply to the Richard Hess’ Review of Old Testament in Archaeology and History’ by Mark Elliott and Ed Wright.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 22 (2019): “An Update on Major People Groups of the Old Testament and Ancient Israel: A Review Article of The World Around the Old Testament: The Peoples and Places of the Ancient Near East.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 21 (2018): “Love and Theology: A Review Article of Sarah Zhang’s I, You, and the Word “God”: Finding Meaning in the Song of Songs.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 20 (2017): “The RBL Review of Arnold and Hess, Ancient Israel’s History.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 18 (2015): “Protective Strategies Here and There: A Review Article of Stephen L. Young, ‘Protective Strategies…’ and ‘Maximizing Literacy as a Protective Strategy’.”
  • Bulletin for Biblical Research 19 (2009): 417-424: “A New Generation of Deuteronomists?”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 12 (2009): “How the Bible Became a Book: A Review Article of Karel van der Toorn, Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible.”
  • Bulletin for Biblical Research 16 (2006): 141-148: “A New Discussion of Archaeology and the Religion of Israel.”
  • Denver Journal 7 (2004) 0102: “The Old Testament in Light of the Archaeological Evidence: A New Assessment for the Twenty-First Century: Review of K. A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, Eerdmans, 2003.”
  • Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies 1 (1998) 0101: “An Annotated Bibliography of Old Testament Studies,” with M. Daniel Carroll R.  Revised, volume 2 (1999) 0101; volume 3 (2000) 0101; volume 4 (2001) 0101; volume 5 (2002) 0101; volume 6 (2003); volume 7 (2004); volume 8 (2005); volume 9 (2006).
  • Journal of Law and Religion 17 (2002) 375-391: “A Reassessment of the Priestly Cultic and Legal Texts.”
  • Denver Journal 4 (2001) 0104: I. Finkelstein and N. A. Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Free Press, 2001. Reprinted in Bible and Spade 15.4 (2002) 123-127.
  • Journal of Semitic Studies 43 (1998): 134-137: A. F. Rainey, Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets: A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect Used by the Scribes from Canaan, Brill, 1996.
  • Journal of Semitic Studies 41 (1996): 126-129: J. E. Hoch, Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period, Princeton University Press, 1994.
  • Themelios 20 (May 1995): 12-15: Studies in the Book of Joshua.  Reprinted at www.biblicalstudies.org.uk (October 5, 2004).
  • Themelios 19 (January 1994): 9-15: Recent Studies in Old Testament History: A Review Article.
  • Themelios 18 (January 1993): 22-24: A. Thiselton, New Horizons in Hermeneutics, Harper Collins, 1992. Reprinted in The Evangelical Review of Theology 17 (1993): 500-508.
  • Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology 10 (1992): 59-67: C. Barth, God with Us: A Theological Introduction to the Old Testament, Eerdmans, 1991.
  • Themelios 15 (October 1989): 24-29 [28-29]: H. Shanks ed., Ancient Israel: A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, Biblical Archaeology Society, 1989; in “Writing the History of Ancient Israel: A Review Article,” with D. Deboys and K. A. Kitchen.

Dictionary Entries

  • The Oxford Handbook of the Historical Books of the Hebrew Bible. Brad E. Kelle and Brent A. Shawn eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, November 2020. “Yahwistic Religion in the Assyrian and Babylonian Periods,” DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190261160.013.27
  • Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. John Barton et al. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 29 May 2020. “Israelite Religion,” https://oxfordre.com/religion/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.001.0001/acrefore-9780199340378-e-156?rskey=sLOWbx&result=1
  • Dictionary of Daily Life in Biblical & Post-Biblical Antiquity: Volume III: I-N. Edwin M. Yamauchi and Marvin R. Wilson, eds. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2016. “Names,” pp. 429-58.
  • The Lexham Bible Dictionary. John D. Barry, David Bomar, Derek R. Brown, Rachel Klippenstein, Douglas Mangum, Carrie Sinclair Wolcott, Lazarus Wentz, Elliot Ritzema, and Wendy Widder, eds.  Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016.  “Israelite Religion.”
  • Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. G. Khan ed. Leiden: Brill, 2012. “Hypocoristic Names,” “Personal Names (Biblical Hebrew).”
  • The Eerdmans Companion to the Bible. G. D. Fee and R. L. Hubbard Jr. eds. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011. “Other Accounts of Creation,” 83-84.
  • The Baker Illustrated Bible Handbook. J. Daniel Hays and J. Scott Duvall eds. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2011. “The Role of the Genealogies in the Old Testament and the Ancient Near East,” 215.
  • New Interpreter’s Bible One-Volume Commentary. B. Roberts Gaventa and D. Petersen, eds. Nashville: Abingdon, 2010. “Joshua,” 143-161.
  • Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible.  Revised edition. M. C. Tenney and M. Silva eds. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009. “Archaeology, VII. Biblical archaeology since 1975,”I 311-313; “Ebla,” II 201-204.
  • Dictionary of the Old Testament: Wisdom, Poetry & Writings. T. Longman III and P. Enns, eds. Downers Grove: IVP, 2008. “Floral Imagery,” 218-223; “Scribes,” 717-720; “Wisdom Sources,” 894-901.
  • Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation. S. E. Porter ed. London: Routledge, 2007. “Chronology (Old Testament),” 54-56; “Cultural Relationships in the Old Testament Period,” 63-67; “Israel, History of,” 172-76;  “Law,” 191-93; “Textual Criticism (Old Testament),” 355-56.
  • Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Nashville: Abingdon, 2006. “Alalakh.”
  • Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books. B. T. Arnold and H. Williamson, eds. Downers Grove: IVP, 2005. “Oral Tradition and Written Tradition,” 764-67; “Taxes, Taxation,” 950-54; “Tribes of Israel and Land/Allotment Borders,” 967-71.
  • Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. C. G. Bartholomew, D. J. Treer, and N. T. Wright eds. Grand Rapids: Baker; London: SPCK, 2005. “History of Israel,” 299-302; “Kings, Books of,” 422-425; “Oral Tradition and the Old Testament,” 551-553. Reprinted as “Kings,” pp. 119-123 in K. J. Vanhoozer ed., Theological Interpretation of the Old Testament: A Book-by-Book Survey. Grand Rapids: Baker; London: SPCK, 2008.
  • Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. T. D. Alexander and D. W. Baker eds. Downers Grove: IVP, 2002. “Adam,” 18-21; “Language of the Pentateuch,” 491-497.
  • New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. T. D. Alexander and B. S. Rosner eds. Leicester: IVP, 2000. “Enoch,” 458-459; “Joshua,” 165-171; “Noah,” 678-679.
  • Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. D. N. Freedman ed.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000. “Amarna,” 49-50; “Amarna Letters, ” 50-51.
  • Zondervan Handbook to the Bible. David Alexander and Pat Alexander eds. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999. “Personal Names in Genesis 1-11,” 121.
  • Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. L. Ryken, J.C. Wilhoit, and T. Longman III eds. Downers Grove: IVP, 1998. “Joshua, Book of,” 461-462.
  • New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology. W. Van Gemeren et al. eds. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. “Dig,” “District,” “Division,” “Door,” “Double,” “Drip,” “Friend,” “Hammer,” “Hang,” “Shechem.”
  • New Bible Dictionary. Third edition. Leicester and Downers Grove: IVP, 1996.  “Ebla,” 287; “Mari,” 726-727; “Sumer,” 1137-1139; “Ugarit,” 1217-1218.
  • Evangelical Encyclopedia of Biblical Theology. W. Elwell ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996. “Hand,” 324; “Joshua,” 428-430.
  • Who’s Who of Biblical Characters. London: Marshall Pickering Harper Collins, 1995. “Elijah,” 149-153; “Joshua,” 377-381; “Solomon,” 623-627.
  • Anchor Bible Dictionary. D. N. Freedman ed.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992.  “Abel,” I 9-10; “Anamim,” I 222-223; “Arpachshad,” I 400; “Arvad,” I 468; “Ashkenaz,” I 490; “Cain,” I 806-807; “Canaan (Person),” I 828; “Caphtor/Caphtorim,” I 869-870; “Casluhim,” I 877-878; “Chaldea,” I 886-887; “Dodanim,” II 219; “Eber (Person),” II 260; “Eber (Place),” II 260; “Egypt (Person),” II 321; “Elam (Person),” II 423-424; “Enoch,” II 508; “Enosh,” II 526; “Hanoch/Hanochites,” II 52; “Haran,” III 57-58; “Irad,” III 448-449; “Iscah,” III 509; “Jabal,” III 593; “Jared,” III 644; “Joktan,” III 935; “Jubal,” III 1024-1025; “Lamech,” IV 136-137; “Mahalalel,” IV 472; “Mehujael,” IV 681; “Methuselah,” IV 800-801; “Methushael,” IV 801; “Milcah,” IV 824-825; “Nahor (Person),” IV 996-997; “Nahor (Place),” IV 997; “Nephilim,” IV 1072-1073; “Peleg,” V 217-218; “Reu,” V 692; “Riphath,” V 775; “Serug,” V 1117-1118; “Seth,” V 1118; “Shelah,” V 1191; “Shelah, Pool of,” V 1191; “Terah (Person),” VI 387-388; “Terah (Place),” VI 388; “Tubal-Cain,” VI 670; “Zillah.” VI 1093-1094.
  • International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,1988. “Tribes, Territories of (Israelite),” IV 907-913.

Blog Contributions

Bible Translations and Notes

  • Member, Committee on Bible Translation, New International Version, 2011-present.
  • Editorial Board, NIV 2011 Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010-2015.
  • Content Reviewer, NIV Stewardship Study Bible.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
  • Translation of 1 and 2 Kings for New Common Bible, Nashville: Abingdon , 2008-2009.
  • Introduction and exegetical notes on Joshua for the Holman Standard Bible Translation, 2006.
  • Editorial Review of translation of Numbers for English Standard Version, 2001.
  • Editorial Review of translation of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther for Broadman and Holman Standard Bible Translation, 2000-2002.
  • Translation of Exodus 24-40 for Broadman and Holman Standard Bible Translation, 1999.
  • Revision reports for the translation of the New International Version’s books of Joshua and of Judges, 1997.
  • Revision of the translation, text critical notes, exegetical notes, introduction, and cross references of the New American Bible’s Book of Joshua, 1996.

Writing, Speaking, and Editorial Projects

  • “Is the Old Testament Reliable? With Dr. Richard S. Hess,” Radio.com Live interview, September 2, 2020, https://www.radio.com/podcasts/kinda-christian-40668/is-the-old-testament-reliable-with-dr-richard-s-hess-328130452
  • Founder and Editor, Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies, Denver Seminary Website, 1998-present.
  • Organizer, 10 Biblical Studies Conferences, Denver Seminary, 2000-present.
  • Adviser or External Examiner for Ph. D. dissertations in universities in the U.S.A., Australia, and Great Britain.
  • Editor, Bulletin for Biblical Research, 2005-2015.
  • Founder and Editor, Bulletin for Biblical Research Supplements Series, 2007-present.
  • “Did Anyone in Ancient Israel Really Believe in God?” in God and Religion through the Ages. DVD. Biblical Archaeology Society Lecture Series, 2014.
  • Agreement to write a commentary on the books of Kings, New International Commentary on the Old Testament, Eerdmans.
  • Editor for a series of Classical Hebrew grammars, Sheffield Academic Press: Sheffield, 1995-2004.
  • Peer Reviewer of Grant Applications for Israel Science Foundation.
  • Editorial work in evaluating manuscripts for Baker, Eisenbrauns, Inter-Varsity Press (U.K. and U.S.A.), Oxford University Press, American Schools of Oriental Research Dissertation Series, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Hebrew Studies, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin, and Science & Christian Belief.